OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 1999
  • pp: 2800–2807

Techniques for measuring aberrations in lenses used in photolithography with printed patterns

Hiroshi Nomura and Takashi Sato  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 13, pp. 2800-2807 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (151 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In optical lithography, it is a serious problem that aberrations in projection lenses reduce the imaging quality. Therefore techniques to measure the aberrations are required that will predict the adverse effects of aberrations on lithographic imagery and reduce them. We present a measurement method that uses a fine grating and its imaging condition to quantify coma, astigmatism, and spherical aberration. With this method, these aberrations can be described with simple expressions from the measured results. Application of this method revealed the coma of Zernike polynomials for our krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer-laser scanner.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(120.4630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical inspection
(220.1010) Optical design and fabrication : Aberrations (global)
(220.4840) Optical design and fabrication : Testing

Original Manuscript: September 9, 1998
Revised Manuscript: December 21, 1998
Published: May 1, 1999

Hiroshi Nomura and Takashi Sato, "Techniques for measuring aberrations in lenses used in photolithography with printed patterns," Appl. Opt. 38, 2800-2807 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. Brunner, “Impact of lens aberrations on optical lithography,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 41, 57–67 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 203–232, 459–490.
  3. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978).
  4. R. P. Grosso, R. Crane, “Precise optical evaluation using phase measuring interferometric techniques,” in Interferometry, G. Hopkins, ed., Proc. SPIE192, 65–74 (1979). [CrossRef]
  5. D. G. Flagello, B. Geh, “Lithography lens testing: analysis of measured aerial images, interferometric data and photoresist measurements,” in Optical Microlithography IX, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE2726, 788–798 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Kirk, “Astigmatism and field curvature from pin-bars,” in Optical/Laser Microlithography IV, V. Pol, ed., Proc. SPIE1463, 282–291 (1991). [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Kirk, “Measurement of astigmatism in microlithography lenses,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. V. den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 848–854 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Farrell, R. Nunes, D. Samuels, A. Thomas, R. Ferguson, A. Molless, A. Wong, W. Conley, D. Wheeler, S. Credendino, M. Naeem, P. Hoh, Z. Lu, “Challenge of 1-Gb DRAM development when using optical lithography,” in Optical Microlithography X, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE3051, 333–341 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Saito, H. Watanabe, Y. Okuda, “Effect of variable sigma aperture on lens distortion and its pattern size dependence,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, S. K. Jones, ed., Proc. SPIE2725, 414–423 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Saito, H. Watanabe, Y. Okuda, “Overlay error of fine patterns by lens aberration using modified illumination,” in Optical Microlithography X, G. E. Fuller, ed., Proc. SPIE3051, 686–696 (1997). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Sato, H. Nomura, “Coma aberration measurement by relative shift of displacement with pattern dependence,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3553–3557 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Nomura, T. Sato, “Overlay error due to lens coma and asymmetric illumination dependence on pattern feature,” in Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XII, L. V. den Hove, ed., Proc. SPIE3332, 199–210 (1998). [CrossRef]
  13. R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, Applied Optics and Optical Engineering (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), Vol. XI.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited