We have reexamined the contribution of Raman scattering to the water-leaving radiance in case 1 waters by carrying out radiative transfer simulations that combine the latest reported measurements of the absorption coefficient of pure water with direct measurements of the spectral variation of the Raman-scattering coefficient. The resulting contribution of Raman scattering is then compared with experimental measurements of the water-leaving radiance, and the fractional contribution of radiance produced by Raman scattering to the total radiance measured at a given wavelength is determined. The results show that (1) the contribution of Raman scattering to the water-leaving radiance in an ocean of pure seawater is as much as 50–100% larger than earlier predictions, and (2) the Raman contribution does not decay as rapidly with increasing concentrations of chlorophyllouslike pigments C as predicted earlier. In fact, the Raman fraction for C ? 1 mg/m3 is approximately ?8% at wavelengths of interest in ocean color remote sensing and therefore cannot be ignored in ocean color modeling.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
[Optical Society of America ]
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(010.7340) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Water
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(290.5860) Scattering : Scattering, Raman
Howard R. Gordon, "Contribution of Raman Scattering to Water-Leaving Radiance: a Reexamination," Appl. Opt. 38, 3166-3174 (1999)