OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 15 — May. 20, 1999
  • pp: 3199–3205

Algorithms for ocean-bottom albedo determination from in-water natural-light measurements

Robert A. Leathers and Norman J. McCormick  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 15, pp. 3199-3205 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (121 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A method for determining the ocean-bottom optical albedo R b from in-water upward and downward irradiance measurements at a shallow site is presented, tested, and compared with a more familiar approach that requires additional measurements at a nearby deep-water site. Also presented are two new algorithms for estimating R b from measurements of the downward irradiance and vertically upward radiance. All methods performed well in numerical situations at depths at which the influence of the bottom on the light field was significant.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(030.5620) Coherence and statistical optics : Radiative transfer
(100.3190) Image processing : Inverse problems

Original Manuscript: February 1, 1999
Published: May 20, 1999

Robert A. Leathers and Norman J. McCormick, "Algorithms for ocean-bottom albedo determination from in-water natural-light measurements," Appl. Opt. 38, 3199-3205 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. G. Ackleson, “Diffuse attenuation is optically shallow water: effects of bottom reflectance,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 326–330 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water. Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).
  3. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “Influence of bottom depth and albedo on reflectance of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2153–2159 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Pratt, K. L. Carder, D. K. Costello, Z. Lee, “Algorithms for path radiance and attenuation to provide color corrections for underwater imagery, characterize optical properties and determine bottom albedo,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 753–759 (1997).
  5. S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994). [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Lyzenga, “Passive remote-sensing techniques for mapping water depth and bottom features,” Appl. Opt. 17, 379–383 (1978). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Remote-sensing estimates of inherent optical properties in a coastal environment,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 61, 290–301 (1997).
  8. Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. LeDrew, H. Holden, D. Peddle, J. Morrow, “Mapping coral ecosystems in Fiji from SPOT imagery with in situ optical correction,” in Information Tools for Sustainable Development: Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment and 18th Symposium of the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (Canadian Aeronautic and Space Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, 1996), pp. 581–584.
  10. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: I. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Maritorena, “Remote sensing of the water attenuation in coral reefs: a case study in French Polynesia,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 17, 155–166 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. Lyzenga, “Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 2, 71–82 (1981). [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. McCormick, “Analytical transport theory applications in optical oceanography,” Ann. Nucl. Energy 23, 381–395 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. W. D. Philpot, “Radiative transfer in stratified waters: a single-scattering approximation for irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4123–4132 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “On calibration of passive optical bathymetry from the spatial variation of environmental parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 10, 1481–1501 (1989). [CrossRef]
  17. R. A. Leathers, N. J. McCormick, “Ocean inherent optical property estimation from irradiances,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8685–8698 (1997). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Kishino, “Interrelationship between light and phytoplankton in the sea,” in Ocean Optics, R. W. Spinrad, K. L. Carder, M. J. Perry, eds. (Oxford University, New York, 1994).
  19. J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A reflecting tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 124–136 (1990). [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media such as the atmosphere/ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. D. Mobley, Sequoia Scientific Inc., 9725 SE 36th St., Mercer Island, Wash. 98040, (personal communication, 1999).
  23. N. J. McCormick, “Asymptotic optical attenuation,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1570–1578 (1992). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited