A general formula for determining the coupling loss between two single-mode fiber collimators with the simultaneous existence of separation, lateral offset and angular tilt misalignments, and spot-size mismatch is theoretically derived by use of the Gaussian field approximation. Based on this general formula, the formulas for coupling losses that are due to the misalignment of insert separation, lateral offset, and angular tilt are given. The formula for the coupling loss that is due to Gaussian spot-size mismatch of two single-mode collimators is also given. Good agreement between these formulas and experimental results is demonstrated with gradient-index rod lens-based fiber collimators operating in the 1300-nm band.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(060.2430) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fibers, single-mode
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
Shifu Yuan and Nabeel A. Riza, "General Formula for Coupling-Loss Characterization of Single-Mode Fiber Collimators by use of Gradient-Index Rod Lenses," Appl. Opt. 38, 3214-3222 (1999)