OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 1999
  • pp: 3662–3669

Fluorescence measurement in thick tissue layers by linear or nonlinear long-wavelength excitation

Peter Lenz  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 16, pp. 3662-3669 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (246 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Samples of different animal tissues containing, at variable depth, a thin fluorescent sheet are irradiated with continuous violet or red light or with nonlinearly absorbed pulsed infrared light. The fluorescence intensity measured at the tissue surface as a function of the location of the fluorescent sheet exhibits, after a transition zone close to the tissue surface, an exponential decrease, the slope of which depends on the optical penetration depths of the exciting and the fluorescent light. From these results the total fluorescence output is determined for specific fluorophor distributions. It is seen that considerably deeper tissue layers are explored by use of excitation with red instead of violet light. Nonlinear excitation by infrared light can provide a further improvement, especially in liver tissue.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(170.4580) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical diagnostics for medicine
(170.6930) Medical optics and biotechnology : Tissue
(170.7050) Medical optics and biotechnology : Turbid media
(190.1900) Nonlinear optics : Diagnostic applications of nonlinear optics
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(190.4710) Nonlinear optics : Optical nonlinearities in organic materials

Original Manuscript: November 3, 1998
Revised Manuscript: February 5, 1999
Published: June 1, 1999

Peter Lenz, "Fluorescence measurement in thick tissue layers by linear or nonlinear long-wavelength excitation," Appl. Opt. 38, 3662-3669 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. H. M. Gijsbers, D. Breederveld, M. J. C. vanGemert, T. A. Boon, J. Langelaar, R. P. H. Rettschnick, “In vivo fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of hematoporphyrin derivative,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 29–47 (1986).
  2. S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy to scientists and clinicians—one world or two?” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 6, 1–12 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Moan, H. Anholt, “Phthalocyanine fluorescence in tumors during PDT,” Photochem. Photobiol. 51, 379–381 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. S. Mang, C. McGinnis, C. Liebow, U. O. Nseyo, D. H. Crean, T. J. Dougherty, “Fluorescence detection of tumors. Early diagnosis of microscopic lesions in preclinical studies,” Cancer 71, 269–276 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. K. Frisoli, E. G. Tudor, T. J. Flotte, T. Hasan, T. F. Deutsch, K. T. Schomacker, “Pharmacokinetics of a fluorescent drug using laser-induced fluorescence,” Cancer Res. 53, 5954–5961 (1993). [PubMed]
  6. R. Cubeddu, G. Canti, P. Taroni, G. Valentini, “Tumor visualization in a murine model by time-delayed fluorescence of sulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine,” Lasers Med. Sci. 12, 200–208 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. H. Witjes, A. J. G. Mank, O. C. Speelman, “Distribution of aluminium phthalocyanine disulfonate in an oral squamous cell carcinoma model,” Photochem. Photobiol. 65, 685–693 (1997). [PubMed]
  8. R. S. Bodaness, D. S. King, “The two-photon induced fluorescence of the tumor localizing photosensitizer hematoporphyrin derivative via 1064-nm photons from a 20-ns Q-switched Nd-YAG laser,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 126, 346–351 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Lenz, “In vivo excitation of photosensitizers by infrared light,” Photochem. Photobiol. 62, 333–338 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. van Hillegersberg, J. W. Pickering, M. Aalders, J. F. Beek, “Optical properties of rat liver and tumor at 633 nm and 1064 nm: photofrin enhances scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 13, 31–39 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. J. C. van Gemert, W. Kamphorst, J. G. Wolbers, W. Holgervorst, “The spectral dependence of the optical properties of human brain,” Lasers Med. Sci. 4, 221–227 (1989). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited