OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 1999
  • pp: 4030–4036

Application of digital speckle photography to flash x-ray studies of internal deformation fields in impact experiments

Per Synnergren, H. Timothy Goldrein, and William G. Proud  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 19, pp. 4030-4036 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1609 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A technique to measure two-dimensional deformation fields of a layer inside materials during dynamic events such as impact experiments is presented. Even optically opaque materials like cement can be evaluated when flash x rays are used. Blocks of polyester and cement were prepared with a layer of x-ray-absorbing lead particles. The specimens were then hit by a 9-mm-diameter steel sphere (ball bearing) fired from a 9-mm-bore gas gun at a velocity of 373.5 ± 3.0 ms-1. A 30-ns-long x-ray pulse exposed one radiograph before impact; another radiograph was exposed a short time after the impact on the specimen. The two-dimensional displacement field was obtained when the x-ray radiographs were digitized by a conventional flatbed scanner, and a digital speckle photography algorithm was used to calculate the displacements. The flash x-ray technique allowed examination of the deformation at the layer inside the material during failure, thus giving interesting data about the material flow field around the impactor.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2190) General : Experimental physics
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(340.7440) X-ray optics : X-ray imaging

Original Manuscript: February 18, 1999
Revised Manuscript: April 13, 1999
Published: July 1, 1999

Per Synnergren, H. Timothy Goldrein, and William G. Proud, "Application of digital speckle photography to flash x-ray studies of internal deformation fields in impact experiments," Appl. Opt. 38, 4030-4036 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. C. Chu, W. F. Ranson, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital image correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985). [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Bruck, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Digital image correlation using Newton–Raphson method by partial differential correction,” Exp. Mech. 29, 261–267 (1989). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Sjödahl, L. R. Benckert, “Electronic speckle photography: analysis of an algorithm giving the displacement with subpixel accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2278–2284 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Sjödahl, “Electronic speckle photography: increased accuracy by nonintegral pixel shifting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6667–6673 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Sjödahl, L. R. Benckert, “Systematic and random errors in electronic speckle photography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7461–7471 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. R. McNeill, W. H. Peters, M. A. Sutton, “Estimation of stress intensity factor by digital image correlation,” Eng. Fracture Mech. 28, 101–112 (1987). [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Helm, S. R. McNeill, M. A. Sutton, “Improved three-dimensional image correlation for surface displacement measurements,” Opt. Eng. 35, 1911–1920 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Johnson, “Strain field measurements with dual-beam digital speckle photography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 30, 315–326 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Rose, H. Imam, S. G. Hanson, H. T. Yura, R. S. Hansen, “Laser-speckle angular-displacement sensor: theoretical and experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2119–2129 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Field, “High-speed photography at the Cavendish,” in High-Speed Photography and Photonics, S. F. Ray, ed. (Focal Press, London, 1997), Chap. 21, pp. 301–314.
  11. N. K. Bourne, L. C. Forde, J. C. F. Millett, J. E. Field, “Impact and penetration of a borosilicate glass,” J. Phys. IV France Colloq. C3 7, 157–162 (1997).
  12. S. S. Russell, M. A. Sutton, “Strain-field analysis acquired through correlation of x-ray radiographs of a fiber-reinforced composite laminate,” Exp. Mech. 29, 237–240 (1989). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Sjödahl, “Accuracy in electronic speckle photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2875–2885 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. P. Brent, Algorithms for Minimization without Derivatives (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973).
  15. B. R. Lawn, Fracture of Brittle Solids, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited