OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 19 — Jul. 1, 1999
  • pp: 4262–4265

Compensated transillumination

Xingkun Wu and Gregory W. Faris  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 19, pp. 4262-4265 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (601 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate imaging through human tissue in vivo, using a new optical technique, compensated transillumination. Immersion in a scattering medium with absorption and scattering coefficients matched to the tissue is used for drastic improvement of image contrast. The immersion medium is composed of polymer microspheres and methylene blue dye. The optical properties of the medium are matched to those of the tissue by use of a frequency-domain measurement technique. Images of a human hand taken with this technique show the internal structure, including the outlines of bones. The mechanism for the contrast is likely the absence of blood between the bones.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0110) Medical optics and biotechnology : Imaging systems
(170.1610) Medical optics and biotechnology : Clinical applications
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.5280) Medical optics and biotechnology : Photon migration
(170.7050) Medical optics and biotechnology : Turbid media

Original Manuscript: December 24, 1998
Revised Manuscript: April 5, 1999
Published: July 1, 1999

Xingkun Wu and Gregory W. Faris, "Compensated transillumination," Appl. Opt. 38, 4262-4265 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. Bright, “Diseases of the brain and nervous system,” in Reports of Medical Cases Selected With a View of Illustrating the Symptoms and Cure of Diseases by a Reference to Morbid Anatomy (Longman, Rees, Orms, Brown, and Green, London, 1831), Vol. II, Case CCV, p. 431.
  2. T. B. Curling, “Simple hydrocele of the testis,” in A Practical Treatise on the Diseases of the Testis and of the Spermatic Cord and Scrotum (Samuel Highley, London, 1843), pp. 125–181.
  3. H. Feldmann, “History of diaphanoscopy. Pictures from the history of otorhinolaryngology, illustrated by instruments from the collection of the Ingolstadt German Medical History Museum,” Laryngorhinootologie 77, 297–304 (1998) (in German).
  4. M. Cutler, “Transillumination as an aid in the diagnosis of breast lesions,” Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 48, 721–729 (1929).
  5. C. Gros, Y. Quenneville, Y. Hummel, “Diaphanologie mammaire [breast diaphanology],” J. Radiol. Electrol. Med. Nucl. 53, 297–306 (1972). [PubMed]
  6. B. Ohlsson, J. Gundersen, D.-M. Nilsson, “Diaphanography: a method for evaluation of the female breast,” World J. Surg. 4, 701–707 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. H. Jones, S. P. Newbery, “Visualization of superficial vasculature using a vidicon camera tube with silicon target,” Br. J. Radiol. 50, 209–210 (1977). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. F. Girolamo, J. V. Gaythorpe, “Clinical diaphanography—its present perspective,” CRC Crit. Rev. Oncology Hematology 2, 1–31 (1989). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Monsees, J. M. Destouet, D. Gersell, “Light scanning of nonpalpable breast lesions: reevaluation,” Radiology 167, 352 (1988). [PubMed]
  10. B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model, and Human Studies II, Proc. SPIE2979 (1997).
  11. B. Tromberg, A. Yodh, E. Sevick, D. Pine, eds., feature issue on Diffusing photons in turbid media, Appl. Opt. 36, 9–416 (1997).
  12. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, K. T. Moesta, P. M. Schlag, M. Kaschke, “Frequency-domain optical mammography: edge effect corrections,” Med. Phys. 23, 149–157 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Liu, M. Miwa, B. Beauvoit, N. G. Wang, B. Chance, “Characterization of absorption and scattering properties of small-volume biological samples using time-resolved spectroscopy,” Anal. Biochem. 213, 378–385 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Wu, L. Stinger, G. W. Faris, “Determination of tissue properties by immersion in a matched scattering fluid,” Proc. SPIE 2979, 300–306 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Zhou, C. Xie, S. Nioka, H. Liu, Y. Zhang, B. Chance, “Phased-array instrumentation appropriate to high-precision detection and localization of breast tumor,” Proc. SPIE 2979, 98–106 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. X. D. Li, J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, D. N. Pattanayak, “Diffraction tomography with diffuse photon density waves: clinical studies and background subtraction,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, G. Fujimoto, M. S. Patterson, eds., Vol. 21 of Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.1998), pp. 281–283.
  17. J. B. Fishkin, E. Gratton, “Propagation of photon-density waves in strongly scattering media containing an absorbing semi-infinite plane bounded by a straight edge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 127–140 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457–3481 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited