A spectroradiometer has been developed for direct measurement of the solar actinic UV flux (scalar intensity) and determination of photolysis frequencies in the atmosphere. The instrument is based on a scanning double monochromator with an entrance optic that exhibits an isotropic angular response over a solid angle of 2π sr. Actinic flux spectra are measured at a resolution of 1 nm across a range of 280–420 nm, which is relevant for most tropospheric photolysis processes. The photolysis frequencies are derived from the measured radiation spectra by use of published absorption cross sections and quantum yields. The advantage of this technique compared with the traditional chemical actinometry is its versatility. It is possible to determine the photolysis frequency for any photochemical reaction of interest provided that the respective molecular photodissociation parameters are known and the absorption cross section falls within a wavelength range that is accessible by the spectroradiometer. The instrument and the calibration procedures are described in detail, and problems specific to measurement of the actinic radiation are discussed. An error analysis is presented together with a discussion of the spectral requirements of the instrument for accurate measurements of important tropospheric photolysis frequencies (<i>J</i><sub>O<sup>1</sup></sub><sub>D</sub>, <i>J</i><sub>NO<sub>2</sub></sub>, <i>J</i><sub>HCHO</sub>). An example of measurements from previous atmospheric chemistry field campaigns are presented and discussed.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.5630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Radiometry
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
Andreas Hofzumahaus, Alexander Kraus, and Martin Müller, "Solar Actinic Flux Spectroradiometry: A Technique for Measuring Photolysis Frequencies in the Atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 38, 4443-4460 (1999)