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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 38, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 1999
  • pp: 4870–4875

Confocal Microscope with Large Field and Working Distance

Robert H. Webb and Fran Rogomentich  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 22, pp. 4870-4875 (1999)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.38.004870


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Abstract

A confocal microscope that uses separate, noncollinear objective lenses for illumination and collection makes it possible to work 20 mm from a sample with a field of view of 2.25 mm across and still achieve lateral and axial resolutions below 5 μm. The design is expected to have application to in vivo confocal microscopy, allowing a field of view and section thickness similar to those used by pathologists in examining excised tissue.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(170.0110) Medical optics and biotechnology : Imaging systems
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(170.0180) Medical optics and biotechnology : Microscopy
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy

Citation
Robert H. Webb and Fran Rogomentich, "Confocal Microscope with Large Field and Working Distance," Appl. Opt. 38, 4870-4875 (1999)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-38-22-4870


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References

  1. J. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1996); T. Wilson, ed. Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990).
  2. T. J. Flotte, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass. 02114 (personal communication, 1997–1999), confirmed W. Hammond (Denver, Colo., 1998).
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  8. Y. Li, “Laser beam scanning by rotary mirrors. II. Conic section scan patterns,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6417–6430 (1995).
  9. Geltech, Inc., 3267 Progress Dr., Orlando, Fla. 32826.
  10. N. Takeshita, T. Fujita, and K. Kime, “Dynamic characteristics of lens actuator for digital video disc,” in Optical Data Storage, G. R. Knight, H. Ooki, and S. Tyan, eds., Proc. SPIE 2514, 159–166 (1995); Y. Kano, T. Kohki, and T. Watanabe, “Characteristics of linear DC motor drive X-Y stage within position detector for microscope,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Commun. Eng. Jpn. Sect. D 112, 1220–1225 (1992).
  11. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946–952 (1995).
  12. W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).

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