OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 26 — Sep. 10, 1999
  • pp: 5560–5567

Image compression in signal-dependent noise

Rubeena Shahnaz, John F. Walkup, and Thomas F. Krile  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 26, pp. 5560-5567 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1207 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The performance of an image compression scheme is affected by the presence of noise, and the achievable compression may be reduced significantly. We investigated the effects of specific signal-dependent-noise (SDN) sources, such as film-grain and speckle noise, on image compression, using JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) standard image compression. For the improvement of compression ratios noisy images are preprocessed for noise suppression before compression is applied. Two approaches are employed for noise suppression. In one approach an estimator designed specifically for the SDN model is used. In an alternate approach, the noise is first transformed into signal-independent noise (SIN) and then an estimator designed for SIN is employed. The performances of these two schemes are compared. The compression results achieved for noiseless, noisy, and restored images are also presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing
(110.4280) Imaging systems : Noise in imaging systems

Original Manuscript: June 24, 1998
Revised Manuscript: January 4, 1999
Published: September 10, 1999

Rubeena Shahnaz, John F. Walkup, and Thomas F. Krile, "Image compression in signal-dependent noise," Appl. Opt. 38, 5560-5567 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Vaaben, B. Niss, “Compressing images with JPEG,” Inf. Disp. 7, 12–14 (1991).
  2. H. H. Arsenault, C. Gendron, M. Denis, “Transformation of film-grain noise into signal-independent additive Gaussian noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 91–94 (1981). [CrossRef]
  3. D. T. Kuan, A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, P. Chavel, “Adaptive restoration of images with speckle,” IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. ASSP-35, 373–382 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Mitra, R. A. Muyshondt, S. Pemmaraju, “Hybrid high-fidelity image compression technique using multi-scale wavelets,” in Wavelet Applications in Signal and Image Processing III, A. F. Laine, M. A. Unser, M. V. Wickerhauser, eds., Proc. SPIE2569, 623–630 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Y. Chang, R. Kwok, J. C. Curlander, “Spatial compression of seasat SAR imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 26, 673–685 (1988). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Kappeler, S. P. Muller, “Wavelet compression for noisy tomographic images,” in Wavelet Applications in Signal and Image Processing III, A. F. Laine, M. A. Unser, M. V. Wickerhauser, eds., Proc. SPIE2569, 644–652 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. O. K. Al-Shaykh, R. M. Mersereau, “Lossy compression of noisy cardiac image sequences,” in Proceedings of the 1996 Data Compression Conference (IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 43–52.
  8. O. K. Al-Shaykh, R. M. Mersereau, “Lossy compression of images corrupted by film grain noise,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE Signal Processing Society, N.Y., 1996), Vol. 1, pp. 805–808. [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zhang, “The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2, 27–40 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. K. Wolf, J. Ziv, “Transmission of noisy information to a noisy receiver with minimum distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-16, 406–411 (1970). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Ephraim, R. M. Gray, “A unified approach for encoding clean and noisy sources by means of waveform and autoregressive model vector quantization,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 34, 826–834 (1988). [CrossRef]
  12. D. T. Kuan, A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, P. Chavel, “Adaptive noise smoothing filter for images with signal-dependent noise,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. PAMI-7, 165–177 (1985). [CrossRef]
  13. H. H. Arsenault, M. Denis, “Integral expression for transforming signal-dependent noise into signal-independent noise,” Opt. Lett. 6, 210–212 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. R. Prucnal, B. E. A. Saleh, “Transformation of image-signal-dependent noise into image-signal-independent noise,” Opt. Lett. 6, 316–318 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. B. Pennebaker, J. L. Mitchel, JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard (Van Nostrand, New York, 1993).
  16. G. K. Froehlich, J. F. Walkup, R. B. Asher, “Optimal estimation in signal-dependent noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1665–1672 (1978). [CrossRef]
  17. H. H. Arsenault, M. Levesque, “Combined homomorphic and local-statistics processing for restoration of images degraded by signal-dependent noise,” Appl. Opt. 23, 845–850 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. S. Lim, H. Nawab, “Techniques for speckle noise removal,” Opt. Eng. 20, 472–480 (1981). [CrossRef]
  19. D. T. Kuan, Nonstationary Recursive Restoration of Images with Signal-Dependent Noise with Application to Speckle Reduction, (Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1982).
  20. Independent JPEG Group’s documentation of JPEG software for release 5September1994 ( http://www.ijg.org ).
  21. P. W. Melnychuck, M. J. Barry, M. S. Mathieu, “The effect of noise and MTF on the compressibility of high resolution color images,” in Image-Processing Algorithms and Techniques, R. J. Moorehead, K. S. Pennington, eds., Proc. SPIE1244, 255–262 (1990). [CrossRef]
  22. G. K. Froehlich, J. F. Walkup, T. F. Krile, “Estimation in signal-dependent film-grain noise,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3619–3626 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Shahnaz, “Image compression in signal-dependent noise,” Master of Science thesis (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, 1995).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited