A design method is presented that enables the realization of a novel type of incoupling waveguide hologram (IWGH) that simultaneously focuses the incoupled light to any desired positions in the waveguide. IWGH’s, or grating couplers, are gratinglike structures etched into the waveguide surface. They couple the light incident from free space into the waveguide. The grating lines can be dislocated with respect to each other to provide phase modulation of the incoupled light. By use of this phase modulation, novel beam splitting and focusing functions can be built into the IWGH’s. The new design algorithm is based on a model that assumes a simple relation between the incident light wave and the locally excited guided wave. This model is used to obtain an efficient formulation of the optimization problem. Four different IWGH’s were designed and fabricated in InP for light at 1550-nm wavelength. Experiments confirm that these IWGH’s are capable of incoupling the incident wave and simultaneously splitting and focusing the guided wave into multiple positions in the waveguide at different distances from the IWGH.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.1750) Integrated optics : Components
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
Johan Backlund, Jörgen Bengtsson, Carl-Fredrik Carlström, and Anders Larsson, "Incoupling Waveguide Holograms for Simultaneous Focusing into Multiple Arbitrary Positions," Appl. Opt. 38, 5738-5746 (1999)