OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 1999
  • pp: 6190–6200

Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors

Michael W. Haney, Marc P. Christensen, Predrag Milojkovic, Jeremy Ekman, Premanand Chandramani, Richard Rozier, Fouad Kiamilev, Yue Liu, and Mary Hibbs-Brenner  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 29, pp. 6190-6200 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (795 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The experimental optical interconnection module of the Free-Space Accelerator for Switching Terabit Networks (FAST-Net) project is described and characterized. Four two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL’s) and photodetectors (PD’s) were designed, fabricated, and incorporated into a folded optical system that links a 10 cm × 10 cm multichip smart pixel plane to itself in a global point-to-point pattern. The optical system effects a fully connected network in which each chip is connected to all others with a multichannel bidirectional data path. VCSEL’s and detectors are arranged in clusters on the chips with an interelement spacing of 140 µm. Calculations based on measurements of resolution and registration tolerances showed that the square 50-µm detector in a typical interchip link captures approximately 85% of incident light from its associated VCSEL. The measured optical transmission efficiency was 38%, with the losses primarily due to reflections at the surfaces of the multielement lenses, which were not antireflection coated for the VCSEL wavelength. The overall efficiency for this demonstration is therefore 32%. With the measured optical confinement, an optical system that is optimized for transmission at the VCSEL wavelength will achieve an overall efficiency of greater than 80%. These results suggest that, as high-density VCSEL-based smart pixel technology matures, the FAST-Net optical interconnection concept will provide a low-loss, compact, global interconnection approach for high bisection-bandwidth multiprocessor applications in switching, signal processing, and image processing.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(200.2610) Optics in computing : Free-space digital optics
(200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

Original Manuscript: February 22, 1999
Revised Manuscript: June 30, 1999
Published: October 10, 1999

Michael W. Haney, Marc P. Christensen, Predrag Milojkovic, Jeremy Ekman, Premanand Chandramani, Richard Rozier, Fouad Kiamilev, Yue Liu, and Mary Hibbs-Brenner, "Multichip free-space global optical interconnection demonstration with integrated arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photodetectors," Appl. Opt. 38, 6190-6200 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. F. T. Leighton, Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Arrays, Trees, Hypercubes (Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1992), Chap. 1, p. 21.
  2. M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Performance scaling comparison for free-space optical and electrical interconnection approaches,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2886–2894 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Two-bounce optical arbitrary permutation network,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2879–2885 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Nakahara, S. Matsuo, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Performance comparison between multiple-quantum-well modulator-based and vertical-cavity-surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels,” Appl. Opt. 35, 860–871 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, S. C. Esener, “Comparison between electrical and free space optical interconnects for fine grain processor arrays based on interconnect density capabilities,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3820–3829 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. A. B. Miller, “Optics for low-energy communication inside digital processors: quantum detectors, sources, and modulators as efficient impedance converters,” Opt. Lett. 14, 146–148 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971). [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, “Optical freespace sliding tandem banyan architecture for self-routing switching networks,” in Digest of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics, London, 1995), pp. 249–250.
  9. M. W. Haney, “Self-similar grid patterns in free-space shuffle–exchange networks,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2047–2049 (1993). [CrossRef]
  10. R. R. Michael, M. P. Christensen, M. W. Haney, “Experimental evaluation of the 3-D optical shuffle interconnection module of the sliding banyan network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1970–1978 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, R. A. Morgan, J. Nohava, B. Walterson, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, E. Kalweit, J. Lehman, D. Carlson, M. Wilson, “Integrated VCSEL’s, MSM PD’s, and GaAs MESFET’s for low-cost optical interconnects,” in Optics in Computing, Volume 8 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper SMB3.
  12. M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, M. Hibbs-Brenner, E. Strzelecka, G. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. Gilbert, “Fast-net optical interconnection prototype characterization,” in the Proceedings of InterPack‘99, 13–19 June 1999, Lahaina, Hawaii, 1999.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited