Several mechanisms for the excitation of capillary waves and for the development of the average deformation of a liquid surface under the action of a modulated laser beam are considered. The amplitude of the capillary wave in a strongly absorbing solution of the dye LDS 751 in ethylene glycol is experimentally studied as a function of laser intensity. Consecutive changes in the predominant mechanism of the excitation with increasing laser intensity are observed and described. At low laser intensities the mechanism connected with the creation of a surface tension gradient prevails. This mechanism becomes nonlinear with increasing influence of the convective motion. In addition, pressure pulsations of the convective flow start to contribute significantly to the generation process. The resonances of capillary waves in a cylindrical container are also investigated and used for determining the surface tension and viscosity of the liquid.
© 1999 Optical Society of America
(240.4350) Optics at surfaces : Nonlinear optics at surfaces
(240.6490) Optics at surfaces : Spectroscopy, surface
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(350.5340) Other areas of optics : Photothermal effects
Alexandre A. Kolomenskii and Hans A. Schuessler, "Excitation of Capillary Waves in Strongly Absorbing Liquids by a Modulated Laser Beam," Appl. Opt. 38, 6357-6364 (1999)