OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 31 — Nov. 1, 1999
  • pp: 6628–6637

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo

George Zonios, Lev T. Perelman, Vadim Backman, Ramasamy Manoharan, Maryann Fitzmaurice, Jacques Van Dam, and Michael S. Feld  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 31, pp. 6628-6637 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (150 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Diffuse reflectance spectra were collected from adenomatous colon polyps (cancer precursors) and normal colonic mucosa of patients undergoing colonoscopy. We analyzed the data by using an analytical light diffusion model, which was tested and validated on a physical tissue model composed of polystyrene beads and hemoglobin. Four parameters were obtained: hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, effective scatterer density, and effective scatterer size. Normal and adenomatous tissue sites exhibited differences in hemoglobin concentration and, on average, in effective scatterer size, which were in general agreement with other studies that employ standard methods. These results suggest that diffuse reflectance can be used to obtain tissue information about tissue structure and composition in vivo.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.6510) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics
(170.7050) Medical optics and biotechnology : Turbid media
(290.4020) Scattering : Mie theory

Original Manuscript: March 15, 1999
Revised Manuscript: July 12, 1999
Published: November 1, 1999

George Zonios, Lev T. Perelman, Vadim Backman, Ramasamy Manoharan, Maryann Fitzmaurice, Jacques Van Dam, and Michael S. Feld, "Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. G. Zonios, R. Cothren, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, R. Manoharan, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Spectral pathology,” Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 108–115 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. J. Eide, “A morphometric analysis of dysplasia in small adenomas of the large intestine,” Virchows Arch. A 410, 119–124 (1986). [CrossRef]
  3. G. L. Tipoe, F. H. White, “Blood vessel morphometry in human colorectal lesions,” Histol. Histopathol. 10, 589–596 (1995). [PubMed]
  4. S. S. Robey-Cafferty, A. K. el-Naggar, D. J. Grignon, K. R. Cleary, J. Y. Ro, “Histologic parameters and DNA ploidy as predictors of survival in stage B adenocarcinoma of colon and rectum,” Mod. Pathol. 3, 261–266 (1990). [PubMed]
  5. N. Sato, K. Takenobu, S. Motoaki, K. Sunao, A. Hiroshi, B. Hagihara, “Measurement of hemoperfusion and oxygen sufficiency in gastric mucosa in vivo,” Gastroenterology 76, 814–819 (1979). [PubMed]
  6. W. T. Knoefel, N. Kollias, D. W. Rattner, N. S. Nishioka, A. L. Warshaw, “Reflectance spectroscopy of pancreatic microcirculation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 80, 116–123 (1996). [PubMed]
  7. M. Ikeda, A. Matsushita, “Reflectance of rat brain structures mapped by an optical fiber technique,” J. Neurosci. Methods 2, 9–17 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, C. Clemente, M. Maniezzo, A. E. Sichirollo, A. Testori, D. R. Venturoli, N. Cascinelli, “In vivo spectrophotometric evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin pigmented lesions. I. Reflectance measurements,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 77–84 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, R. L. Conn, T. Johnson, T. Shimada, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of bladder cancer with elastic light scattering,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 350–357 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 192–199 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Ge, K. T. Schomacker, N. S. Nishioka, “Identification of colonic dysplasia and neoplasia by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 833–839 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Schmitt, “Simple photon diffusion analysis of the effects of multiple scattering on pulse oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38, 1194–1203 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Takatani, J. Ling, “Optical oximetry sensors for whole blood and tissue,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 3, 347–357 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Arnfield, J. Tulip, M. S. McPhee, “Optical propagation in tissue with anisotropic scattering,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 35, 372–381 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2304–2314 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Takatani, M. Graham, “Theoretical analysis of diffuse reflectance from a two-layer tissue model,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 26, 656–664 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. I. Zonios, R. M. Cothren, J. T. Arendt, J. Wu, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, R. Manoharan, M. S. Feld, “Morphological model of human colon tissue fluorescence,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 43, 113–122 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, M. S. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627–630 (1998). [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Zangaro, L. Silveira, R. Manoharan, G. Zonios, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Rapid multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy system for in vivo tissue diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5211–5219 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. F. Brennan, G. I. Zonios, T. D. Wang, R. P. Rava, G. B. Hayes, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Portable laser spectrofluorimeter system for in vivo human tissue fluorescence studies,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 2081–2086 (1993). [CrossRef]
  21. R. M. Cothren, G. B. Hayes, J. R. Kramer, B. A. Sacks, C. Kittrell, M. S. Feld, “A multifiber catheter with an optical shield for laser angiosurgery,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 1–12 (1986).
  22. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the non-invasive determination of tissue optical properties,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. A. Duck, Physical Properties of Tissue: A Comprehensive Reference Book (Academic, London, 1990), p. 62.
  24. F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, C. R. Taylor, R. J. Ference, “Refractive index of some mammalian tissues using a fiber optic cladding method,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2297–2303 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1978), Chap. 9.
  26. O. W. van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1970), pp. 355–359.
  27. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992), pp. 681–699.
  28. W. J. Wiscombe, “NCAR technical note,” (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1979).
  29. G. Zonios, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human colon tissue,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1998).
  30. J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998). [CrossRef]
  31. E. L. Hull, T. H. Foster, “Noninvasive near-infrared hemoglobin spectroscopy for in vivo monitoring of tumor oxygenation and response to oxygen modifiers,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model and Human Studies II, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2979, 355–364 (1997).
  32. H. Liu, D. A. Boas, Y. Zhang, A. G. Yodh, B. Chance, “Determination of optical properties and blood oxygenation in tissue using continuous NIR light,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1983–1993 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. E. Marx, G. W. Mulholland, “Size and refractive index determination of single polystyrene spheres,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 88, 321–338 (1983). [CrossRef]
  34. R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, S. Fumagalli, A. E. Sichirollo, S. Di Palma, M. Dal Fante, P. Spinelli, A. C. Croce, G. Bottiroli, “Ex vivo optical properties of human colon tissue,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 351–357 (1994). [CrossRef]
  35. R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. Tsay, T. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727–2741 (1994). [CrossRef]
  36. J. R. Mourant, J. Boyer, A. H. Hielscher, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of the scattering phase function on light transport measurements in turbid media performed with small source-detector separations,” Opt. Lett. 21, 546–548 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. R. K. Jain, “Determinants of tumor blood flow: a review,” Cancer Res. 48, 2641–2658 (1988). [PubMed]
  38. S. A. Skinner, G. M. Frydman, P. E. O’Brien, “Microvascular structure of benign and malignant tumors of the colon in humans,” Digestive Diseases Sci. 40, 373–384 (1995). [CrossRef]
  39. N. D. Carr, B. R. Pullan, P. F. Schofield, “Microvascular studies in non-specific inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27, 542–549 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. M. Tsujii, S. Kawano, S. Tsuji, I. Kobayashi, Y. Takei, K. Nagano, H. Fusamoto, T. Kamada, T. Ogihara, N. Sato, “Colonic mucosal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in patients with ulcerative colitis: investigation by organ reflectance spectrophotometry,” J. Gastroenterol. 30, 183–188 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. D. F. Horrobin, Medical Physiology and Biochemistry (Arnold, London, 1968), p. 384.
  42. P. Vaupel, “Oxygen transport in tumors: characteristics and clinical implications,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 388, 341–351 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. A. G. Ferdman, I. V. Yannas, “Scattering of light from histologic sections: a new method for the analysis of connective tissue,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 100, 710–716 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. I. S. Saidi, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, “Mie and Rayleigh modeling of visible-light scattering in neonatal skin,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7410–7418 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. B. Beauvoit, T. Kitai, B. Chance, “Contribution of the mitochondrial compartments of the optical properties of the rat liver: a theoretical and practical approach,” Biophys. J. 67, 2501–2510 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. H. J. Thomson, A. Busuttil, M. A. Eastwood, N. A. Smith, R. A. Elton, “The submucosa of the human colon,” J. Ultrastruct. Mol. Struct. Res. 96, 22–30 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited