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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 1999
  • pp: 6826–6832

Chlorophyll-based model of seawater optical properties

Vladimir I. Haltrin  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 33, pp. 6826-6832 (1999)

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A one-parameter model of the inherent optical properties of biologically stable waters is proposed. The model is based on the results of in situ measurements of inherent optical properties that have been conducted at different seas and oceans by a number of researchers. The results of these investigations are processed to force this model to agree satisfactorily with an established regression model that connects the color index with the chlorophyll concentration. The model couples two concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (concentrations of humic and fulvic acids) and two concentrations of suspended scattering particles (concentrations of terrigenic and biogenic particles) with the chlorophyll concentration. As a result, this model expresses all inherent properties of seawater by a single parameter, the concentration of chlorophyll.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: April 12, 1999
Revised Manuscript: July 20, 1999
Published: November 20, 1999

Vladimir I. Haltrin, "Chlorophyll-based model of seawater optical properties," Appl. Opt. 38, 6826-6832 (1999)

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  1. Some of the material in this paper has been presented at the Ocean Optics XIV Conference, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998 (see Ref. 2).
  2. V. I. Haltrin, “One-parameter model of seawater optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIV CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., November1998).
  3. K. L. Carder, R. G. Stewart, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989). [CrossRef]
  4. D. K. Clark, E. T. Backer, A. E. Strong, “Upwelled spectral radiance distribution in relation to particular matter in water,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 287–298 (1980). [CrossRef]
  5. O. V. Kopelevich, “Small-parametric model of the optical properties of seawater,” in Ocean Optics, I: Physical Ocean Optics, A. S. Monin, ed. (Nauka, Moscow, 1983), pp. 208–234 (in Russian).
  6. L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981). [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water: II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980). [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983). [CrossRef]
  11. V. A. Timofeyeva, “Optical characteristics of turbid media of the seawater type,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean Phys. 7, 863–865 (1971).
  12. V. I. Haltrin (aka V. I. Khalturin), “Propagation of light in sea depth,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Sea and the Influence of the Atmosphere, V. A. Urdenko, G. Zimmermann, eds. (German Democratic Republic Academy of Sciences Institute for Space Research, Berlin, 1985), Chap. 2, pp. 20–62 (in Russian).
  13. V. I. Haltrin, “Self-consistent approach to the solution of the light transfer problem for irradiances in marine waters with arbitrary turbidity, depth and surface illumination,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3773–3784 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, G. R. Harvey, “Quantum fluorescence efficiencies of fulvic and humic acids: effect on ocean color and fluorometric detection,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 212–223 (1992). [CrossRef]
  15. V. I. Haltrin, G. W. Kattawar, “Effects of Raman scattering and fluorescence on apparent optical properties of seawater,” (Department of Physics, Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).
  16. V. I. Haltrin, G. W. Kattawar, “Self-consistent solutions to the equation of transfer with elastic and inelastic scattering in oceanic optics: I. Model,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5356–5367 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. I. Haltrin, G. W. Kattawar, A. D. Weidemann, “Modeling of elastic and inelastic scattering effects in oceanic optics,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, R. Frouin, eds., Proc. SPIE2963, 597–602 (1997). [CrossRef]
  18. If we consider these processes on a macroscopic level.
  19. V. I. Khalturin (aka V. I. Haltrin), “The self-consistent two-stream approximation in radiative transfer theory for the media with anisotropic scattering,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean Phys. 21, 452–457 (1985).
  20. In a general case absorption coefficient a is a function of wavelength λ and sea depth z. The angular scattering coefficient β is a function of wavelength λ, sea depth z, and scattering angle ϑ.
  21. V. I. Haltrin, “Theoretical and empirical phase functions for Monte Carlo calculations of light scattering in seawater,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, I (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), pp. 509–518. [Errata.: in Eq. (45) exponent base e should be replaced by 10. In Fig. 3 the vertical label should be: Logarithm (base 10) of Scattering Phase Function.]
  22. V. A. Timofeyeva, “The diffuse reflection coefficient and its relation to the optical parameters of turbid media,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean Phys. 7, 467–469 (1971).
  23. V. A. Timofeyeva, “Relation between the optical coefficients in turbid media,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean Phys. 8, 654–656 (1972).
  24. V. A. Timofeyeva, “Relation between light field parameters and between scattering phase function characteristics of turbid media, including sea water,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean Phys. 14, 843–848 (1978).
  25. V. A. Timofeyeva, “Determination of light-field parameters in the depth regime from irradiance measurements,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean Phys. 15, 774–776 (1979).
  26. T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters, (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, Visibility Laboratory, San Diego, Calif., 1972).
  27. V. I. Haltrin, “Apparent optical properties of the sea illuminated by Sun and sky: case of the optically deep sea,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8336–8340 (1998). [CrossRef]
  28. V. I. Haltrin, “Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea,” Appl. Opt. 38, 932–936 (1999). [CrossRef]
  29. E. Aas, N. K. Hojerslev, B. Lundgren, “Spectral irradiance, radiance and polarization data from the Nordic cruise in the Mediterranean Sea during June–July 1971,” (Institutt for Geofysikk, Universitet i Oslo, September1997).
  30. The explanation of nonlinear dependence on concentration can be found in Ref. 31.
  31. V. I. Haltrin, “Light scattering coefficient of seawater for arbitrary concentrations of hydrosols,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 16, 1715–1723 (1999). [CrossRef]
  32. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).
  33. K. S. Shifrin, Physical Optics of Ocean Water (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988).
  34. V. I. Haltrin, “An algorithm to restore spectral signatures of all inherent optical properties of seawater using a value of one property at one wavelength,” in Proceedings of the Fourth International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition/21st Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1999), pp. I-680–I-687.
  35. V. I. Haltrin, E. B. Shybanov, R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Light scattering coefficient by quartz particles suspended in seawater,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS’99, T. I. Stein, ed. (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1999), pp. 1420–1422.

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