OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 38, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 1999
  • pp: 966–971

Heat-resistant flexible-film optical waveguides from fluorinated polyimides

Tohru Matsuura, Junya Kobayashi, Shinji Ando, Tohru Maruno, Shigekuni Sasaki, and Fumio Yamamoto  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 38, Issue 6, pp. 966-971 (1999)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (259 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Heat-resistant flexible-film optical waveguides were fabricated from fluorinated polyimides. These waveguides operated in single mode and had low optical loss (0.3 dB/cm) at a wavelength of 1.3 µm for TE and TM polarizations. They also had good flexibility: The optical loss did not significantly change above a minimum radius of curvature of less than 20 mm. The birefringence of 9 × 10-5 between the TE and TM polarizations is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that for a waveguide upon a substrate. Moreover, these waveguides had high thermal stability and moisture resistance: The optical loss and single-mode behavior changed little after heating the waveguides at 420 °C for 1 h or after their exposure to 85% relative humidity at 85 °C for more than 350 h.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

Original Manuscript: July 6, 1998
Revised Manuscript: November 6, 1998
Published: February 20, 1999

Tohru Matsuura, Junya Kobayashi, Shinji Ando, Tohru Maruno, Shigekuni Sasaki, and Fumio Yamamoto, "Heat-resistant flexible-film optical waveguides from fluorinated polyimides," Appl. Opt. 38, 966-971 (1999)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. Izawa, “Plastic planar waveguides for optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Optical Communication and the 8th International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (Société des Electriciens et des Electroniciens, Paris, 1991), pp. 97–100.
  2. D. H. Hartman, G. R. Lalk, J. W. Howse, R. R. Krchnavek, “Radiant cured polymer optical waveguides on printed circuit boards for photonic interconnection use,” Appl. Opt. 28, 40–47 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Single-mode optical waveguides fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1032–1037 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Imamura, R. Yoshimura, T. Izawa, “Polymer channel waveguides with low loss at 1.3 µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1342–1343 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kaino, Y. Katayama, “Polymers for optoelectronics,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29, 1209–1214 (1989). [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Christensen, “Plasma-etched polymer waveguides for intrachip optical interconnects,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects, T. E. Batchman, R. F. Carson, R. L. Galawa, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE836, 359–363 (1987). [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Booth, “Low loss channel waveguides in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1445–1453 (1989). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Usui, S. Imamura, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, H. Sato, M. Hikita, T. Izawa, “Low-loss polymeric optical waveguides with thermal stability,” Electron. Lett. 30, 958–959 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. C. T. Sullivan, “Optical waveguide circuits for printed wire-board interconnections,” in Optoelectronic Materials, Devices, Packaging, and Interconnects II, G. M. McWright, H. J. Wojtunik, eds., Proc. SPIE994, 92–100 (1988). [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Hagerhorst-Trewhella, J. D. Gelorme, B. Fan, A. Speth, D. Flagello, M. M. Optysko, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Integrated Optics and Optoelectronics, K. K. Wong, H. J. Wojtunik, S. T. Peng, M. A. Mentzer, L. McCaughan, eds., Proc. SPIE1177, 379–386 (1989). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Xu, R. A. Norwood, L. Eldada, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shacklette, C. Wu, J. T. Yardley, “Robust polymeric materials for optical waveguiding devices,” Proc. Am. Chem. Soc. 75, 364–365 (1996).
  12. R. Moosburger, G. Fischbeck, C. Kostrzewa, K. Petermann, “Digital optical switch based on oversized polymer rib waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 32, 544–545 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Imamura, T. Izawa, “Coupling ratio control of polymeric waveguide couplers by bending,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2135–2136 (1992). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Hida, H. Onose, S. Imamura, “Polymer waveguide thermooptic switch with low electric power consumption at 1.3 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 782–784 (1993). [CrossRef]
  15. N. Keil, H. H. Yao, C. Zawadzki, B. Strebel, “4 × 4 polymer thermo-optic directional coupler switch at 1.55 µm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 639–640 (1994). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Reuter, H. Franke, C. Feger, “Evaluating polyimides as lightguide materials,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4565–4571 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 4. Optical properties of fluorinated polyimides for optoelectronic components,” Macromolecules 27, 6665–6670 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Low loss heat-resistant optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 269–270 (1993). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Matsuura, S. Ando, S. Matsui, S. Sasaki, F. Yamamoto, “Heat-resistant singlemode optical waveguides using new fluorinated polyimides,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2107–2108 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Directional couplers using fluorinated polyimide waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 610–614 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, T. Maruno, “Fluorinated polyimide waveguides with low polarization-dependent loss, and their applications to thermooptic switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1024–1029 (1998). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Kobayashi, Y. Inoue, T. Matsuura, T. Maruno, “Tunable and polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer fabricated from fluorinated polyimides,” Inst. Electr. Inf. Commun. Eng. Trans. E81-C, 1020–1026 (1998).
  23. J. Kobayashi, T. Ishii, T. Maruno, T. Horiuchi, T. Tamamura, “Direct fabrication of polyimide waveguide grating by synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3336–3338 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. A. Kaneko, M. Hikita, S. Imamura, M. Kihara, “Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for optical interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 5th European International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibres and Applications (Institute of Communications, Geneva, 1996), pp. 113–119.
  25. T. Matsuura, Y. Hasuda, S. Nishi, N. Yamada, “Polyimides derived from 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl. 1. Synthesis and characterization of polyimides prepared with 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride,” Macromolecules 24, 5001–5005 (1991). [CrossRef]
  26. T. Tsuruta, Applied Optics II (Baihukan, Tokyo, 1993), pp. 191–194.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited