OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 39, Iss. 1 — Jan. 1, 2000
  • pp: 20–25

Contrast in the evanescent near field of λ/20 period gratings for photolithography

Sharee J. McNab and Richard J. Blaikie  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 20-25 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.000020


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (116 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Light propagation through gratings with periods as small as λ/20 is investigated computationally by use of the multiple multipole method in two dimensions. High image contrast is evident close to the grating. Strong evanescent decay of the high spatial frequency components is observed with the region of high contrast shrinking linearly as the period of the grating is decreased. Simulations were performed for TE and TM polarizations with the TM polarization providing the dominant contrast compared with TE, which is strongly attenuated owing to the polarizing effect of the gratings. These results show good promise for optical contact lithography in the evanescent near field of a shadow mask to attain feature sizes smaller than λ/20.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

History
Original Manuscript: June 21, 1999
Revised Manuscript: September 10, 1999
Published: January 1, 2000

Citation
Sharee J. McNab and Richard J. Blaikie, "Contrast in the evanescent near field of λ/20 period gratings for photolithography," Appl. Opt. 39, 20-25 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-1-20


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114–3116 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, R. J. Jackman, G. M. Whitesides, “Using an elastomeric phase mask for sub-100 nm photolithography in the optical near-field,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2658–2660 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. M. M. Alkaisi, R. J. Blaikie, S. J. McNab, “Nanolithography using wet etched silicon nitride phase masks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3929–3933 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. V. Bouchiat, D. Esteve, “Lift-off lithography using an atomic force microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 398–400 (1996). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Davy, M. Spajer, “Near field optics: snapshot of the field emitted by a nanosource using a photosensitive polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3306–3308 (1996). [CrossRef]
  6. R. Blaikie, M. Alkaisi, S. McNab, D. Cumming, D. Hasko, “Nanolithography using optical contact exposure in the evanescent near field,” Microelectron. Eng. 46, 85–88 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, O. J. F. Martin, “Light-coupling masks for lensless, sub-wavelength optical lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379–2381 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, O. J. F. Martin, N. B. Piller, “Light-coupling masks: an alternative, lensless approach to high-resolution optical contact lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3422–3425 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ono, M. Esashi, “Subwavelength pattern transfer by near-field photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 6745–6749 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. H. I. Smith, N. Efremow, P. L. Kelly, “Photolithographic contact printing of 4000Å linewidth patterns,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1503–1506 (1974). [CrossRef]
  11. B. J. Lin, “Electromagnetic near-field diffraction in a medium slit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 976–981 (1972). [CrossRef]
  12. C. Hafner, The Generalized Multipole Technique for Computational Electromagnetics (Artech House, Boston, 1990).
  13. D. W. Novotny, L. Pohl, P. Regli, “Light propagation through nanometer-sized structures: the two-dimensional-aperture scanning near-field optical microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1768–1779 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Gran, D. A. Pommet, T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068–1076 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Chen, R. K. Kupka, “Analysis of the near field image formation of dielectric gratings,” Ultramicroscopy 57, 153–159 (1995). [CrossRef]
  16. C. H. Hafner, MaX-1 A Visual Electromagnetics Platform (Wiley, Chichester, England, 1998).
  17. C. Hafner, “Multiple multipole (MMP) computations of guided waves and waveguide discontinuities,” International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields (Wiley, Chichester, 1990), Vol. 3, pp. 247–257. [CrossRef]
  18. C. H. Hafner, Post-Modern Electromagnetics Using Intelligent Maxwell Solvers (Wiley, Chichester, England, 1998).
  19. D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 75th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited