OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 39, Iss. 14 — May. 10, 2000
  • pp: 2332–2339

Tunable electro-optic microlens array. I. Planar geometry

Mykola Kulishov  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 14, pp. 2332-2339 (2000)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1375 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A description is given of a microlens array design, believed to be new, with tunable focal length. Converging or diverging periodic refractive-index distribution is induced in a linear electro-optic wafer through the application of electric field profiles on both sides of the wafer. The transparent electrodes on both sides of the wafer are positioned such that the electrodes on the opposite side compensate the phase delay from the electrodes on the front side of the wafer for a normally incident plane wave, suppressing the intrinsic electrode diffraction for the device without applied voltage. The original technique of the electric field calculation was developed to analyze accurately the induced refractive index inside the wafer. Its focal length changes from 7 mm to infinity at a 1-µm wavelength with an external voltage range of 0–100 V.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.5060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Phase modulation
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(120.5710) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Refraction
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials

Original Manuscript: September 23, 1999
Revised Manuscript: January 6, 2000
Published: May 10, 2000

Mykola Kulishov, "Tunable electro-optic microlens array. I. Planar geometry," Appl. Opt. 39, 2332-2339 (2000)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. N. F. Borrelli, Microoptics Technology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).
  2. H. P. Herzig, ed., Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  3. M. Oikawa, H. Nemoto, K. Hamanaka, E. Okuda, “High-numerical-aperture planar microlens with swelled structure,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4077–4080 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Tatebayashi, T. Yamamoto, H. Sato, “Dual focal point electro-optic lens with a Fresnel-zone plate on a PLZT ceramic,” Appl. Opt. 31, 2770–2775 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Wang Song and X.-M. Wang, “Lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic wafer-based electro-optic dynamic diverging lens,” Opt. Lett. 21, 243–245 (1996).
  6. Q. Wang Song, X.-M. Wang, F. Haritatos, “Test and analysis of an electro-optic dynamic diverging lens for three-dimensional optical memories,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1796–1803 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Kulishov, “Adjustable electro-optic microlens with two concentric ring electrode,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1936–1938 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kulishov, “Modeling of a converging gradient-index lens with variable focal length in a lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic cylinder with a lateral multielectrode structure,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3506–3514 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 35, 4668–4672 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. N. Kuleshov (now spelled Kulishov) and G. Beilin, “Optimization of electrode pattern for multichannel spatial light modulators on the basis of PLZT ceramics with quadratic electro-optic effect,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 345–355 (1995).
  11. I. S. Gradshtein, I. M. Ryzhik, Tables of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, New York, 1980), Secs. 1.441.1 and 1.441.4.
  12. M. A. Title, S. H. Lee, “Modeling and characterization of embedded electrode performance in transverse electro-optic modulators,” Appl. Opt. 29, 85–98 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. P. Herzig, D. Prongue, R. Dandliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L1307–L1309 (1990). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited