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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 39, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2000
  • pp: 2719–2726

Effect of Local Microroughness on the Gloss Uniformity of Printed Paper Surfaces

Marie-Claude Béland and Jean M. Bennett  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 16, pp. 2719-2726 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.002719


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Abstract

A critical factor that affects the appearance of printed paper surfaces is gloss uniformity, which is usually assessed visually. To relate gloss uniformity to nonvisual quantities, we first visually identified areas of either high or low gloss on the same sample for two different types of paper. We then measured the roughness and the reflectance of these areas. Microroughness was measured with an atomic-force microscope, and roughness was measured over a larger area with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The local reflectance of the high-gloss and the low-gloss areas was obtained from images taken with a gloss-imaging instrument and compared with the roughness of each area. This correlation is nonlinear, and roughness is insufficient to predict the local reflectance. Light-scattering measurements were made in the specular direction to map the gloss uniformity over larger areas than was possible with the gloss-imaging instrument. These maps were used to show the possibility of using both the spatial frequency and the fan filters, which together form a set of cortex filters, to analyze the variation of the gloss about the mean value and its spatial distribution on the surface in terms of spatial frequency and azimuthal orientation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.6660) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Surface measurements, roughness
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(240.5770) Optics at surfaces : Roughness
(290.5880) Scattering : Scattering, rough surfaces

Citation
Marie-Claude Béland and Jean M. Bennett, "Effect of Local Microroughness on the Gloss Uniformity of Printed Paper Surfaces," Appl. Opt. 39, 2719-2726 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-16-2719


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References

  1. M. A. MacGregor, P.-Å. Johansson, and M.-C. Béland, “Small-scale gloss variations in prints—topography explains much of the variation,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (TAPPI Press, Atlanta, Ga., 1994), pp. 33–43.
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  10. Ref. 9, pp. 35–36.
  11. M.-C. Béland, S. Lindberg, and P.-Å. Johansson, “Optical measurement and perception of gloss quality of printed matte-coated paper,” in Proceedings of the 1998 Pan-Pacific and International Printing and Graphic Arts Conference (Pulp and Paper Technical Association of Canada, Montreal, Quebec, 1998), pp. 187–192.
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  14. Dimension 3000 scanning-probe microscope (Digital Instruments, Veeco Process Metrology, 112 Robin Hill Road, Goleta, Calif. 93117).
  15. Model TCS confocal laser scanning microscope (Leica Lasertechnik GmbH, Im Neuenheimer Feld 518, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany).
  16. M.-C. Béland and P. J. Mangin, “Three-dimensional evaluation of paper surfaces using confocal microscopy,” in Surface Analysis of Paper, T. E. Conners and S. Bannerjee, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), Chap. 1.
  17. M.-C. Béland worked with C. Barratte and M. MacGregor on the development of the methods and the applications. The method is available from M.-C. Béland.
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