We present a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of subwavelength diffractive optical elements (DOE’s), using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. To this end we develop and apply efficient 3D FDTD methods that exploit DOE properties, such as symmetry. An axisymmetric method is validated experimentally and is used to validate the more general 3D method. Analyses of subwavelength gratings and lenses, both with and without rotational symmetry, are presented in addition to a 2 × 2 subwavelength focusing array generator.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
Original Manuscript: August 3, 1999
Revised Manuscript: January 6, 2000
Published: June 10, 2000
Mark S. Mirotznik, Dennis W. Prather, Joseph N. Mait, William A. Beck, Shouyuan Shi, and Xiang Gao, "Three-dimensional analysis of subwavelength diffractive optical elements with the finite-difference time-domain method," Appl. Opt. 39, 2871-2880 (2000)