OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 39, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2000
  • pp: 3012–3022

Irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: Raman-scattering effects

G. Chris Boynton and Howard R. Gordon  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 18, pp. 3012-3022 (2000)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (174 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We modify an algorithm for retrieving the absorption (a) and backscattering (b b ) coefficient profiles in natural waters by inverting profiles of downwelling and upwelling irradiance so as to include the presence of Raman scattering. For a given wavelength of interest, λ, the light field at the appropriate Raman excitation wavelength λ e is first inverted to obtain the Raman source function at λ. Starting from estimates of the inherent optical properties at λ, the contribution to the irradiances at λ from Raman scattering is then estimated and subtracted from the total irradiances to obtain the elastically scattered irradiances. We then inverted the elastically scattered irradiances to find new estimates of a and b b using our original method [Appl. Opt. 37, 3886 (1998)]. The algorithm then operates iteratively: The new estimates are used with the Raman source function to derive a new estimate of the Raman contribution, etc. Sample results are provided that demonstrate the working of the algorithm and show that the absorption and scattering coefficients can be retrieved with accuracies similar to those in the absence of Raman scattering down to depths at which the light field is significantly perturbed by it, e.g., with ∼90% of the upwelling light field originating from Raman scattering.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.0010) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric and oceanic optics
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(290.3200) Scattering : Inverse scattering
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering
(290.5860) Scattering : Scattering, Raman

Original Manuscript: September 20, 1999
Revised Manuscript: February 28, 2000
Published: June 20, 2000

G. Chris Boynton and Howard R. Gordon, "Irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: Raman-scattering effects," Appl. Opt. 39, 3012-3022 (2000)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, “A radiance–irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: homogeneous waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2636–2641 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, “A radiance–irradiance inversion algorithm for estimating the absorption and backscattering coefficients of natural waters: vertically stratified water bodies,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3886–3896 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Gordon, “The sensitivity of radiative transfer to small-angle scattering in the ocean: a quantitative assessment,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7505–7511 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanog. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984). [CrossRef]
  5. R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4011 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. H. Stavn, “Raman scattering effects at the shorter visible wavelengths in clear ocean water,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 94–100 (1990). [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Kattawar, X. Xu, “Filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the ocean by Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6491–6500 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Ge, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, “Simulations of inelastic scattering contributions to the irradiance fields in the ocean: variation in Fraunhofer line depths,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4028–4036 (1993). [PubMed]
  10. K. J. Waters, “Effects of Raman scattering on water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100C, 13,151–13,161 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. C. Hu, K. J. Voss, “In situ measurements of Raman scattering in clear ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6962–6967 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3166–3174 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–258 (1984). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 43–53 (1981). [CrossRef]
  15. C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Sea water temperature measurement from Raman spectra,” (Avco Everett Research Laboratory, Inc., 2385 Revere Beach Parkway, Everett, Mass., 1974).
  16. J. S. Bartlett, K. J. Voss, S. Sathyendranath, A. Vodacek, “Raman scattering by pure water and seawater,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3324–3332 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water; Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).
  18. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. III. Implication of bidirectionality for the remote sensing problem,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4850–4862 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.
  23. G. W. Kattawar, “A three-parameter analytic phase function for multiple scattering calculations,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 839–849 (1975). [CrossRef]
  24. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1992).
  26. D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,209–17,217 (1997). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Kishino, J. Ishizaka, S. Saitoh, Y. Senga, M. Masayoshi, “Verification plan of ocean color and temperature scanner atmospheric correction and phytoplankton pigment by moored optical bouy system,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,197–17,207 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited