OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 39, Iss. 21 — Jul. 20, 2000
  • pp: 3754–3764

Solid laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer

Michael E. Schaepman and Stefan Dangel  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 21, pp. 3754-3764 (2000)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (184 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Field-based nonimaging spectroradiometers are often used in vicarious calibration experiments for airborne or spaceborne imaging spectrometers. The calibration uncertainties associated with these ground measurements contribute substantially to the overall modeling error in radiance- or reflectance-based vicarious calibration experiments. Because of limitations in the radiometric stability of compact field spectroradiometers, vicarious calibration experiments are based primarily on reflectance measurements rather than on radiance measurements. To characterize the overall uncertainty of radiance-based approaches and assess the sources of uncertainty, we carried out a full laboratory calibration. This laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer is based on a measurement plan targeted at achieving a ≤10% uncertainty calibration. The individual calibration steps include characterization of the signal-to-noise ratio, the noise equivalent signal, the dark current, the wavelength calibration, the spectral sampling interval, the nonlinearity, directional and positional effects, the spectral scattering, the field of view, the polarization, the size-of-source effects, and the temperature dependence of a particular instrument. The traceability of the radiance calibration is established to a secondary National Institute of Standards and Technology calibration standard by use of a 95% confidence interval and results in an uncertainty of less than ±7.1% for all spectroradiometer bands.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.2190) General : Experimental physics
(120.5630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Radiometry
(120.6200) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Spectrometers and spectroscopic instrumentation
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(300.6190) Spectroscopy : Spectrometers
(300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution

Original Manuscript: September 7, 1999
Revised Manuscript: April 17, 2000
Published: July 20, 2000

Michael E. Schaepman and Stefan Dangel, "Solid laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer," Appl. Opt. 39, 3754-3764 (2000)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. S. Chen, Remote Sensing Calibration Systems: An Introduction (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1997), p. 238.
  2. H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy of ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Green, “Spectral calibration requirement for Earth-looking imaging spectrometers in the solar-reflected spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 683–690 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Strobl, A. Müller, D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, “Laboratory calibration and inflight validation of the digital airborne imaging spectrometer DAIS 7915 for the 1996 flight season,” in Algorithms for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery III, A. Iverson, S. S. Shen, eds., Proc. SPIE3071, 225–236 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Schaepman, Calibration of a Field Spectroradiometer, Vol. 31 of Remote Sensing Series (Remote Sensing Laboratories, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, 1998), p. 146.
  6. D. Hatchell, ed., ASD Technical Guide, 3rd. ed. (Analytical Spectral Devices, Boulder, Colo., 1999), p. 19–1.
  7. Geophysical and Environmental Research Corporation, “GER 3700: highest resolution, photodiode & photoconductor array-based spectroradiometer,” (Geophysical and Environmental Research Corporation, Millbrook, N.Y., 1993), pp. 1–2.
  8. K. Staenz, R. P. Gauthier, D. P. Witz, M. E. Schaepman, K. I. Itten, “GER 3700—a new array-based instrument for field spectroscopy in the VNIR/SWIR wavelength regions,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (Topographic Engineering Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alexandria, Va., 1995).
  9. CR-699 ring dye laser, Coherent Laser Product Division, Palo Alto, Calif., 1977, Sec. 2, pp. 1–25.
  10. Optronic Laboratories, Inc., “Operation Manual OL450, Rev. D” (Optronic, Orlando, Fla., 1993), pp. 1–15.
  11. Optronic Laboratories, Inc., “Luminance and color temperature calibration certificate,” (Optronic, Orlando, Fla., 1996), pp. 1–9.
  12. Labsphere, “Integrating sphere theory and applications,” in Labsphere Catalog, Sphere Systems and Instrumentation (Labsphere, North Sutton, N.H., 1996), pp. 103–116.
  13. Labsphere, “Calibration data: reflectance calibration standards,” (Labsphere, North Sutton, N.H., 1995), pp. 1–4.
  14. H. J. Kostkowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, La Plata, Mass., 1997), p. 609.
  15. E. F. Zalewski, “Radiometry and photometry,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, pp. 24.1–24.51.
  16. C. L. Sanders, “Accurate measurements of and corrections for non-linearities in radiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (USA) Sect. A 76, 437–439 (1972). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, “modtran: a moderate resolution model for lowtran7,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1989), p. 38.
  18. International Organization for Standardization, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (I. O. S., Geneva, Switzerland, 1995), p. 101.
  19. B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurements results,” Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Tech Note 1297, 20 (1994).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited