OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 39, Iss. 25 — Sep. 1, 2000
  • pp: 4715–4720

Evaluation of Kromoscopy: resolution of glucose and urea

Anna M. Helwig, Mark A. Arnold, and Gary W. Small  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 25, pp. 4715-4720 (2000)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (94 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Kromoscopy involves the transmission of a broad band of electromagnetic radiation through the sample of interest. The transmitted light is collected and divided evenly into four detector channels with complementary bandpass functions. This optical configuration provides high signal-to-noise ratios that are ideal for analytical measurements. The molecular basis of the four-channel response is critical, because it directly influences selectivity of the measurement and, therefore, the feasibility of applications in complex sample matrices. Selectivity of the Kromoscopic signal is demonstrated by resolution of glucose and urea with four channels of information collected over the 800–1300-nm near-infrared spectral region. Analysis of the individual channel responses indicates that the displacement of water from the optical path by the dissolution of solute is a major component of the Kromoscopic measurement in this spectral region. Nevertheless, significant differences are observed in channel responses for glucose and urea. A three-dimensional vector plot of the data highlights these differences and reveals unique vector directions for glucose and urea. This difference in direction of the response vectors represents the principal basis for distinguishing glucose and urea dissolved in aqueous solutions.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.1570) General : Chemistry
(000.2170) General : Equipment and techniques
(120.3890) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.1610) Medical optics and biotechnology : Clinical applications
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation

Original Manuscript: December 6, 1999
Revised Manuscript: June 6, 2000
Published: September 1, 2000

Anna M. Helwig, Mark A. Arnold, and Gary W. Small, "Evaluation of Kromoscopy: resolution of glucose and urea," Appl. Opt. 39, 4715-4720 (2000)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. L. A. Sodickson, M. J. Block, “Kromoscopic analysis: a possible alternative to spectroscopic analysis for noninvasive measurement of analytes in vivo,” Clin. Chem. 40, 1838–1844 (1994). [PubMed]
  2. M. J. Block, “Kromoscopic analysis challenges spectroscopy,” Photonics Spectra 28, 135–139 (1994).
  3. L. A. Sodickson, “Improvements in multivariate analysis via Kromoscopic measurements,” Spectroscopy12, 13–16, 18, 22, 24 (1997).
  4. M. W. Misner, M. J. Block, “The raw data of Kromoscopic analysis,” Spectroscopy 12, 20–21 (1997).
  5. M. J. Block, “Noninvasive testing,” U.S. patent5,321,265 (14June1994).
  6. M. J. Block, L. Sodickson, “Noninvasive non-spectrophotometric infrared measurement of blood analyte concentrations,” U.S. patent5,424,545 (13June1995).
  7. M. J. Block, L. Sodickson, “Non-spectrophotometric measurement of analyte concentrations and optical properties of objects,” U.S. patent5,434,412 (18July1995).
  8. M. J. Block, L. Sodickson, “Methods of minimizing scattering and improving tissue sampling in noninvasive testing and imaging,” U.S. patent5,672,875 (30September1997).
  9. L. Sodickson, M. J. Block, “Nonspectrophotometric measurement of analyte concentrations and optical properties of objects,” U.S. patent5,818,044 (6October1998).
  10. L. Sodickson, H. E. Guthermann, M. J. Block, “Rapid noninvasive optical analysis using broad bandpass spectral processing,” U.S. patent5,818,048 (6October1998).
  11. M. J. Block, “Noninvasive IR transmission measurement of analyte in the tympanic membrane,” U.S. patent6,002,953 (14December1999).
  12. L. Sodickson, H. E. Guthermann, M. J. Block, “Rapid noninvasive optical analysis using broad bandpass spectral processing,” U.S. Patent6,028,311 (22February2000).
  13. M. A. Arnold, G. W. Small, “Determination of physiological levels of glucose in aqueous matrix with digitally filtered Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 62, 1457–1464 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Chung, M. A. Arnold, M. Rhiel, D. W. Murhammer, “Simultaneous measurements of glucose, glutamine, ammonia, lactate, and glutamate in aqueous solutions by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 270–276 (1996). [CrossRef]
  15. K. H. Hazen, M. A. Arnold, G. W. Small, “Measurement of glucose in water with first overtone near infrared spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1597–1605 (1998). [CrossRef]
  16. R. J. McNichols, G. L. Coté, “Optical glucose sensing in biological fluids: an overview,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 5–16 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. O. H. Wheeler, “Near infrared spectra of organic compounds,” Chem. Rev. 59, 629–666 (1959). [CrossRef]
  18. J. B. Reeves, “Effects of water on the spectra of model compounds in the short-wavelength near infrared spectral region (14,000–9091 cm-1 or 714–1100 nm),“ Near Infrared Spectrosc. 2, 199–212 (1994).
  19. J. D. Ingle, S. R. Crouch, Spectrochemical Analysis (Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1988).
  20. O. S. Khalil, “Spectroscopic and clinical aspects of noninvasive glucose measurements,” Clin. Chem. 45, 165–177 (1999). [PubMed]
  21. M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “The influence of glucose concentration upon the transport of light in tissue-simulating phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 1267–1287 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Buijs, G. R. Choppin, “Near-infrared studies of the structure of water. I. Pure water,” J. Chem. Phys. 39, 2035–2041 (1963). [CrossRef]
  23. J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, “The absorption spectra of liquid phase H2O, HDO, and D2O from 0.7 µm to 10 µm,” Infrared Phys. 3, 211–223 (1963). [CrossRef]
  24. J. Lin, C. W. Brown, “Near-IR spectroscopic determination of NaCl in aqueous solution,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 1809–1815 (1992). [CrossRef]
  25. J. Lin, C. W. Brown, “Spectroscopic measurement of NaCl and seawater salinity in the near-IR region of 680–1230 nm,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 239–241 (1993). [CrossRef]
  26. J. Lin, C. W. Brown, “Universal approach for determination of physical and chemical properties of water by near-IR spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1720–1727 (1993). [CrossRef]
  27. R. C. Weast, ed., “Concentration properties of aqueous solutions: conversion tables,” in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1975), p. D-230.
  28. Ref. 27, p. D-265.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited