A near-infrared airborne-laser transmission model for thin cirrus clouds has been developed on the basis of the successive-order-of-scattering approach to account for multiple scattering by randomly and horizontally oriented ice crystals associated with an aircraft–target system. Direct transmission and transmission due to multiple scattering are formulated specifically for this geometric system, in which scattering and absorption associated with aerosols, water vapor, and air are accounted for. A number of sensitivity experiments have been performed for investigation of the effect of aircraft–target position, cirrus cloud optical depth, and ice crystal size on laser transmission for tactical applications. We show that transmission contributions produced by orders of scattering higher than 1 are small and can be neglected. The possibility of horizontal orientation of ice crystals can enhance transmission of laser beams in the aircraft–target geometry. Transmitted energy is strongly dependent on the horizontal distance between the aircraft and the target and on the cloud optical depth as well as on whether the cloud is above or below the aircraft.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
(010.1320) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric transmittance
(010.3310) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Laser beam transmission
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(290.1090) Scattering : Aerosol and cloud effects
K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, S. C. Ou, and M. W. Johnson, "Laser Transmission Through Thin Cirrus Clouds," Appl. Opt. 39, 4886-4894 (2000)