All-optical communication systems are the subject of intense research related to the integration of nonlinear optical materials. In sodiocalcic borophosphate glasses that contain niobium oxide and exhibit high nonlinear optical indices, planar waveguides have been formed by a Ag<sup>+</sup>–Na<sup>+</sup> ion-exchange technique. WKB analysis has been used to characterize the diffusion profiles of silver ions exchanged in glass substrate samples chemically by an electron microprobe technique and optically by an <i>M</i>-line technique. These methods permit the Ag<sup>+</sup> penetration depth and diffusion profile shape and index profiles to be determined. The results are analyzed and discussed in relation to Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentration and exchange conditions in glasses. The Ag<sup>+</sup> diffusion in these glasses can be almost entirely controlled for index-profile engineering.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(130.4310) Integrated optics : Nonlinear
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(230.4000) Optical devices : Microstructure fabrication
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
Marc Martin, Jean J. Videau, Lionel Canioni, Frédéric Adamietz, Laurent Sarger, and Gilles Le Flem, "Planar Waveguides Formed by Ag+-Na+ Ion Exchange in Nonlinear Optical Glasses: Diffusion and Optical Properties," Appl. Opt. 39, 435-440 (2000)