OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 39, Iss. 33 — Nov. 20, 2000
  • pp: 6243–6256

Development of high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for measuring pressure, temperature, and density in high-speed gas flows

Mark A. Woodmansee, Robert P. Lucht, and J. Craig Dutton  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 33, pp. 6243-6256 (2000)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (274 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Mean and instantaneous measurements of pressure, temperature, and density have been acquired in an optically accessible gas cell and in the flow field of an underexpanded sonic jet by use of the high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) technique. This nonintrusive method resolves the pressure- and temperature-sensitive rotational transitions of the ν = 0 → 1 N2Q-branch to within Δω = 0.10 cm-1. To extract thermodynamic information from the experimental spectra, theoretical spectra, generated by a N2 spectral modeling program, are fit to the experimental spectra in a least-squares manner. In the gas cell, the CARS-measured pressures compare favorably with transducer-measured pressures. The precision and accuracy of the single-shot CARS pressure measurements increase at subatmospheric conditions. Along the centerline of the underexpanded jet, the agreement between the mean CARS P/ T/ρ measurements and similar quantities extracted from a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamic simulation is generally excellent. This CARS technique is able to capture the low-pressure and low-temperature conditions of the M = 3.4 flow entering the Mach disk, as well as the subsonic conditions immediately downstream of this normal shock.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(280.2490) Remote sensing and sensors : Flow diagnostics
(300.6420) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, nonlinear
(300.6450) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Raman

Original Manuscript: March 16, 2000
Revised Manuscript: August 4, 2000
Published: November 20, 2000

Mark A. Woodmansee, Robert P. Lucht, and J. Craig Dutton, "Development of high-resolution N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for measuring pressure, temperature, and density in high-speed gas flows," Appl. Opt. 39, 6243-6256 (2000)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA’s High Speed Research Program (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997).
  2. J. Sahu, C. J. Nietubicz, “Three-dimensional flow calculations for a projectile with standard and dome bases,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 106–112 (1994). [CrossRef]
  3. A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Lückerath, M. Woyde, W. Meier, W. Stricker, U. Schnell, H.-C. Magel, J. Görres, H. Spliethoff, H. Maier, “Comparison of coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering thermometry with thermocouple measurements and model predictions in both natural-gas and coal-dust flames,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3303–3312 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. J. Beiting, “Multiplex CARS temperature measurements in a coal-fired MHD environment,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1684–1692 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. E. Foglesong, P. J. Rubas, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. E. Peters, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in a direct-injection natural gas engine,” SAE Paper 980144 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  7. K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, “N2 CARS thermometry in diesel engine,” SAE Paper 821036 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1982).
  8. R. E. Foglesong, S. M. Green, R. P. Lucht, J. C. Dutton, “Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering for simultaneous pressure/temperature measurement,” AIAA J. 36, 234–240 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. R. L. Farrow, R. Trebino, R. E. Palmer, “High-resolution CARS measurements of temperature profiles and pressure in a tungsten lamp,” Appl. Opt. 26, 331–335 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, “Effects of laser linewidth on the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectral profile,” Appl. Spectrosc. 36, 565–569 (1982). [CrossRef]
  11. R. E. Palmer, “The CARSFIT computer code for calculating coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra: user and programmer information,” (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).
  12. F. Grisch, P. Bouchardy, M. Péalat, B. Chanetz, T. Pot, M. C. Coët, “Rotational temperature and density measurements in a hypersonic flow by dual-line CARS,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 14–20 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Péalat, M. Lefebvre, “Temperature measurement by single-shot dual-line CARS in low-pressure flows,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 23–29 (1991). [CrossRef]
  14. M. D. Di Rosa, A. Y. Chang, R. K. Hanson, “Continuous wave dye-laser technique for simultaneous, spatially resolved measurements of temperature, pressure, and velocity of NO in an underexpanded free jet,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4074–4087 (1993).
  15. A. Y. Chang, B. E. Battles, R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous measurements of velocity, temperature, and pressure using rapid cw wavelength-modulation laser-induced fluorescence of OH,” Opt. Lett. 15, 706–708 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Hiller, R. K. Hanson, “Simultaneous planar measurements of velocity and pressure fields in gas flows using laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 27, 33–48 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Lemoine, B. Leporcq, “An efficient optical pressure measurement in compressible flows: laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids 19, 150–158 (1995). [CrossRef]
  18. J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. J. N. Forkey, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Accuracy limits for planar measurements of flow field velocity, temperature, and pressure using filtered Rayleigh scattering,” Exp. Fluids 24, 151–162 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. R. J. Exton, M. E. Hillard, “Raman Doppler velocimetry: a unified approach for measuring molecular flow velocity, temperature, and pressure,” Appl. Opt. 25, 14–21 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Moosmüller, G. C. Herring, C. Y. She, “Two-component velocity measurements in a supersonic nitrogen jet with spatially resolved inverse Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 9, 536–538 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. Y. She, H. Moosmüller, G. C. Herring, “Coherent light scattering spectroscopy for supersonic flow measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 283–297 (1988). [CrossRef]
  23. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, St. Leonards, Australia, 1996).
  24. W. M. Tolles, J. W. Nibler, J. R. McDonald, A. B. Harvey, “A review of the theory and application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS),” Appl. Spectrosc. 31, 253–271 (1977). [CrossRef]
  25. F. P. Incropera, Introduction to Molecular Structure and Thermodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1974).
  26. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Laser Dyes Catalog (Exciton Inc., P.O. Box 31126, Overlook Station, Dayton, Ohio 45437-0126).
  28. R. V. Hogg, E. A. Tanis, Probability and Statistical Inference (Macmillan, New York, 1993).
  29. L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, M. L. Koszykowski, P. L. Mattern, “Observation of an optical Stark effect on vibrational and rotational transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 620–623 (1980). [CrossRef]
  30. R. P. Lucht, R. L. Farrow, “Calculation of saturation line shapes and intensities in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectra of nitrogen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1243–1252 (1988). [CrossRef]
  31. A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations for the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–314 (1985). [CrossRef]
  32. D. A. Greenhalgh, S. T. Whittley, “Mode noise in broadband CARS spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 907–913 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. M. Péalat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefebvre, J.-P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. H. Schenck, Theories of Engineering Experimentation (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1979).
  35. L. P. Goss, “CARS instrumentation for combustion applications,” in Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion, A. M. K. P. Taylor, ed. (Academic, London, 1983).
  36. C. D. Mikkelsen, K. D. Kennedy, AMSAM-RD-SS-AT, U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Ala. 35898-5252 (personal communication, 1998).
  37. S. J. Kline, F. A. McClintock, “Describing uncertainties in single-sample experiments,” Mech. Eng. 75, 3–8 (1953).
  38. J. Panda, “Shock oscillation in underexpanded screeching jets,” J. Fluid Mech. 363, 173–198 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited