OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 39, Iss. 35 — Dec. 10, 2000
  • pp: 6545–6555

Liquid-Crystal Blazed-Grating Beam Deflector

Xu Wang, Daniel Wilson, Richard Muller, Paul Maker, and Demetri Psaltis  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 35, pp. 6545-6555 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.006545


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (2901 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A transmission-type nonmechanical multiple-angle beam-steering device that uses liquid-crystal blazed grating has been developed. Sixteen steering angles with a contrast ratio of 18 has been demonstrated. A detailed analysis of the liquid-crystal and poly(methyl methacrylate) blazed-grating deflector was carried out to provide guidance during the deflector’s development. A manufacturing offset compensation technique is proposed to improve the device’s performance greatly. A hybrid approach utilizing electrically generated blazed grating combined with the cascading approach described here yields in excess of 500 deflecting angles.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1940) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices

Citation
Xu Wang, Daniel Wilson, Richard Muller, Paul Maker, and Demetri Psaltis, "Liquid-Crystal Blazed-Grating Beam Deflector," Appl. Opt. 39, 6545-6555 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-35-6545


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, and M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections using liquid crystal microprism arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 195–198 (1994).
  2. K. Hirabayashi and T. Kurokawa, “Liquid crystal devices for optical communication and information processing systems,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 307–317 (1993).
  3. D. Faklis and G. M. Morris, “Diffractive optics technology for display applications,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 2407, 57–61 (1995).
  4. J. J. Drolet, E. Chuang, G. Barbastathis, and D. Psaltis, “Compact, integrated dynamic holographic memory with refreshed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 22, 552–554 (1997).
  5. Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, and D. D. Stancil, “Guide-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401–1404 (1994).
  6. J. A. Thomas, M. Lasher, Y. Fainman, and P. Soltan, “PLZT-based dynamic diffractive optical element for high-speed, random-access beam steering,” in Optical Scanning Systems: Design and Applications, L. Beiser and S. F. Sagan, eds., Proc. SPIE 3131, 124–132 (1997).
  7. D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, and T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
  8. E. Schulze and W. Reden, “Diffractive liquid crystal spatial light modulators with fine-pitch phase gratings,” in Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Displays, R. Shashidhar and U. Efron, eds., Proc. SPIE 2408, 113–120 (1995).
  9. G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, and M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pollicove, and W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE 1168, 352–357 (1989).
  10. L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich and S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 2689, 188–194 (1996).
  11. R. L. Sutherland, “Electrically switchable volume holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
  12. J. Borel, J. C. Deutsch, G. Labrunie, and J. Robert, “Liquid crystal diffraction grating,” U.S. patent 3,843,231 (20 October 1974).
  13. A. F. Fray and D. Jones, “Large-angle beam deflector using liquid crystals,” Electron. Lett. 15, 358–359 (1975).
  14. T. A. Dorschner and D. P. Resler, “Optical beam steering having subaperture addressing,” U.S. Patent 5,093,747 (5 March 1992).
  15. B. J. Cassarly, J. C. Ehlert, and D. J. Henry, “Low insertion loss high precision liquid crystal optical phased array,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies III, D. L. Begley and B. D. Seery, eds., Proc. SPIE 1417, 110–121 (1991).
  16. V. R. L. Sutherland and L. V. Natarajan, “Development of photopolymer liquid crystal composite materials for dynamic hologram applications,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich and S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 2152, 303–313 (1994).
  17. D. Armitage, “Silicon-chip liquid crystal display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE 2407, 280–290 (1995).
  18. T. Uchida, “Present and future trend of liquid crystal devices,” in Display Technologies, S. Chen and T. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE 1815, 10–17 (1992).
  19. P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, and R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen and P. G. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. 62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 415–430.
  20. L. M. Blinov, “Electro-optical effects in liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 658–672 (1975).
  21. W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, and W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).
  22. Frank Allan, EM Industries, Inc., 7 Skyline Drive, Hawthorne, N.Y. (personal communication, 1996).
  23. Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, and R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
  24. D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, and R. E. Muller, “Binary optics reflection grating for an imaging spectrometer,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich and S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE 2689, 255–266 (1996).
  25. X. Wang and D. Psaltis, “Liquid crystal on silicon beam deflector,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems, and Spatial Light Modulators VI, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE 3633, 160–169 (1999).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited