Photosensitive ZrO<sub>2</sub> gel films were patterned with a two-beam interference method by use of a 325-nm-wavelength He–Cd laser for the first time to our knowledge. The ZrO<sub>2</sub> gel films were prepared from Zr(O-<i>n</i>-C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>9</sub>)<sub>4</sub> chemically modified with benzoylacetone. We fabricated uniform gratings with a 0.5-μm period on Si or SiO<sub>2</sub> substrates by etching the gel films in ethyl alcohol after UV irradiation. A maximum diffraction efficiency of 28% was attained with the grating fabricated on Si substrate under a Littrow mounting condition by use of a 633-nm-wavelength He–Ne laser. Blazed gratings could also be fabricated.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication
(230.4000) Optical devices : Microstructure fabrication
Kenji Kintaka, Junji Nishii, and Noboru Tohge, "Diffraction gratings of photosensitive ZrO2 gel films fabricated with the two-ultraviolet-beam interference method," Appl. Opt. 39, 489-493 (2000)