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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 39, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 2000
  • pp: 933–940

Modal field deformation and transition losses in UV side-written optical fibers

Hagen Renner, Dietmar Johlen, and Ernst Brinkmeyer  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 6, pp. 933-940 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.000933


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Abstract

The asymmetry of the UV-induced refractive-index profile in photosensitive optical fibers causes a deformation of the modal fields, resulting in transition losses between UV-exposed and unexposed fiber sections up to 0.1 dB for UV-induced index changes of the order of ≤10-2. A numerical analysis of the transition losses is developed. It is verified experimentally that the loss is caused by coupling of power of the fundamental mode to cladding modes at such a transition.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

History
Original Manuscript: September 2, 1998
Revised Manuscript: November 16, 1999
Published: February 20, 2000

Citation
Hagen Renner, Dietmar Johlen, and Ernst Brinkmeyer, "Modal field deformation and transition losses in UV side-written optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 39, 933-940 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-6-933


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References

  1. For example, Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997).
  2. M. Janos, J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, “Incoherent scattering losses in optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1827–1829 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Johlen, P. Klose, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, “Strong LP11-mode splitting in UV side-written tilted fiber gratings,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper BMG12, pp. 219–221.
  4. C. K. Madsen, J. J. DeMarco, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowsky, R. E. Scotti, T. A. Strasser, “Apodized UV-induced gratings in planar waveguides for compact add–drop filters,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper BTuA4, pp. 262–264.
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  6. D. Johlen, P. Klose, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, “Narrow-band-mode converting Fabry–Perot output coupler for fiber lasers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper FA4, pp. 372–373.
  7. J. Canning, A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, “Correlation between photodarkening and index change during 193 nm irradiation of germanosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1349–1356 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Renner, “Modes of UV-written planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 23, 111–113 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. I. S. Gradshteyn, I. M. Ryzhik, Tables of Integrals, Series, and Products (Academic, London, 1980).
  10. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).
  11. P. H. Moon, D. E. Spencer, Field Theory Handbook (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
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  13. Fiber CD 120.02 (Optical Fiber Technology Center, Sydney, Australia).
  14. D. Johlen, H. Renner, A. Ewald, E. Brinkmeyer, “Fiber Bragg grating Fabry–Perot interferometer for a precise measurement of the UV-induced index change,” in Proceedings of 24th European Conference on Optical Communication 1998 (Lerko Print, Madrid, 1998), paper WdA06, pp. 393–394.
  15. D. Johlen, F. Knappe, H. Renner, E. Brinkmeyer, “UV-induced absorption, scattering and transition losses in UV side-written fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper ThD1, pp. 50–52.
  16. Radiation modes of the uncoated fiber, which could contribute to radiation of power out of the cladding into air, oscillate rapidly over the region of the fundamental-mode fields. Thus, they are excited to a negligible amount only and are not considered here. The actual transition losses of the fundamental mode would even be increased by that small amount of power possibly coupled to radiation modes.
  17. E. M. Dianov, S. A. Vasiliev, A. A. Frolov, O. I. Medvedkov, “Germanosilicate glass refractive-index change under singlet and triplet excitation of germanium oxygen deficient centers,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JMF4, pp. 175–177.

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