OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 39, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2000
  • pp: 1183–1193

Effect of multiple light paths on retinal vessel oximetry

Matthew H. Smith, Kurt R. Denninghoff, Arthur Lompado, and Lloyd W. Hillman  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 39, Issue 7, pp. 1183-1193 (2000)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.001183


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (373 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Techniques for noninvasively measuring the oxygen saturation of blood in retinal arteries and veins are reported in the literature, but none have been sufficiently accurate and reliable for clinical use. Addressing the need for increased accuracy, we present a series of oximetric equations that explicitly consider the effects of backscattering by red blood cells and lateral diffusion of light in the ocular fundus. The equations are derived for the specific geometry of a scanning-beam retinal vessel oximeter; however, the results should also be applicable to photographic oximeters. We present in vitro and in vivo data that suggest the validity of these equations.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(170.1470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Blood or tissue constituent monitoring
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(170.4460) Medical optics and biotechnology : Ophthalmic optics and devices
(170.6510) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics

History
Original Manuscript: July 8, 1999
Revised Manuscript: November 16, 1999
Published: March 1, 2000

Citation
Matthew H. Smith, Kurt R. Denninghoff, Arthur Lompado, and Lloyd W. Hillman, "Effect of multiple light paths on retinal vessel oximetry," Appl. Opt. 39, 1183-1193 (2000)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-39-7-1183


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. J. B. Hickam, R. Frayser, J. C. Ross, “A study of retinal venous blood oxygen saturation in human subjects by photographic means,” Circulation 27, 375–385 (1963). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. J. Cohen, R. A. Laing, “Multiple scattering analysis of retinal blood oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 23, 391–400 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. C. Delori, “Noninvasive technique for oximetry of blood in retinal vessels,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1113–1125 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Schweitzer, L. Leistritz, M. Hammer, M. Scibor, U. Bartsch, J. Strobel, “Calibration-free measurement of the oxygen saturation in retinal vessels of men,” in Ophthalmic Technologies V, J.-M. Parel, Q. Ren, K. M. Joos, eds., Proc. SPIE2393, 210–218 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, C. E. Hughes, F. Kuhn, L. W. Rue, “Retinal large vessel oxygen saturation correlates with early blood loss and hypoxia in anesthetized swine,” J. Trauma 43, 29–34 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, R. A. Chipman, “Oxygen saturation measurements of blood in retinal vessels during blood loss,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 296–303 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. S. Tiedeman, S. E. Kirk, S. Srinivas, J. M. Beach, “Retinal oxygen consumption during hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes without retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 105, 31–36 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. H. Smith, “Optimum wavelength selection for retinal vessel oximetry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 258–267 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Beach, K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, J. S. Tiedeman, “Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: calibration and influence of pigmentation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 748–758 (1999). [PubMed]
  10. O. W. Van Assendelft, Spectrophotometry of Haemoglobin Derivatives (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1970).
  11. V. Twersky, “Absorption and multiple scattering by biological suspensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1084–1093 (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. N. Pittman, B. R. Duling, “A new method for the measurement of percent oxyhemoglobin,” J. Appl. Physiol. 38, 315–320 (1975). [PubMed]
  13. J. J. Drewes, M. H. Smith, K. R. Denninghoff, L. W. Hillman, “An instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation,” in Optical Diagnostics of Biological Fluids IV, A. V. Priezzhev, M. V. Lomonosov, T. Asakura, eds., Proc. SPIE3591, 114–120 (1999).
  14. R. A. MacRae, J. A. McClure, P. Latimer, “Spectral transmission and scattering properties of red blood cells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1366–1372 (1961). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. G. Borovoi, E. I. Naats, U. G. Oppel, “Scattering of light by a red blood cell,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 364–372 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, A. Kolb, “Single scattering by red blood cells,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7410–7418 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. F. C. Delori, E. S. Gragoudas, R. C. Pruett, “Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography: the normal fundus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 95, 861–868 (1977). [CrossRef]
  18. F. C. Delori, K. P. Pfilbsen, “Spectral reflectance of the human ocular fundus,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1061–1077 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. J. Hodgkinson, P. B. Greer, A. C. B. Molteno, “Point-spread function for light scattered in the human ocular fundus,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 479–486 (1994). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Hammer, S. Leistritz, L. Leistritz, D. Schweitzer, E. Thamm, K. H. Donnerhacke, “Monte Carlo simulation of retinal vessel profiles for the interpretation of in vivo oximetric measurements by imaging fundus reflectometry,” in Medical Applications of Lasers in Dermatology, Ophthalmology, Denistry, and Endoscopy, G. B. Altshuler, R. Birngruber, M. Dal Forte, R. Hibst, H. Hoenigsmann, N. Krasner, F. Laffitte, eds., Proc. SPIE3192, 211–218 (1997).
  21. S. Prahl has compiled data of hemoglobin extinction coefficients from several investigators. The data are available at http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html .
  22. N. M. Anderson, P. Sekelj, “Light-absorbing and scattering properties of nonhemolysed blood,” Phys. Med. Biol. 12, 173–184 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. M. Anderson, P. Sekelj, “Reflection and transmission of light by thin films of nonhaemolysed blood,” Phys. Med. Biol. 12, 185–192 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Steinke, A. P. Shepherd, “Diffusion model of the optical absorbance of whole blood,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 813–822 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. Twersky, “Absorption and multiple scattering by biological suspensions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1084–1093 (1970). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. N. Yaroslavsky, I. V. Yaroslavski, T. Goldbach, H.-J. Schwarmaier, “Influence of the scattering phase function approximation on the optical properties of blood determined from the integrating sphere measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 47–53 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. J. Drewes, “Four wavelength retinal vessel oximetry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alabama, Huntsville, Ala., 1999).
  28. A. Lompdo, “A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for retinal vessel oximetry,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alabama, Huntsville, Ala., 1999).
  29. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. K. R. Denninghoff, M. H. Smith, R. A. Chipman, L. W. Hillman, P. M. Jester, F. Kuhn, D. Redden, L. W. Rue, “Retinal venous oxygen saturation correlates with blood volume,” Acad. Emerg. Med. 5, 577–582 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited