A multilayer coating alters the amplitude and phase of a reflected wave front. The amplitude effects are multiplicative and well understood. We present a mathematical formalism that can be used to describe the phase effects of coating in a general case. On the basis of this formalism we have developed an analytical method of estimating the wave-front aberrations introduced by the multilayer coating. For the case of field-independent aberrations, we studied both uniform and graded multilayer coatings. For the case of field-dependent aberrations, we studied only the effects of a uniform multilayer coating. Our analysis is based on a coated plane mirror tilted with respect to an incident converging beam. Altogether we have found, up to the second order, the following aberrations: a field-dependent piston, a field-squared-dependent piston, defocus, field-independent tilt, field-independent astigmatism, and anamorphic magnification. To obtain numerical results we apply our analysis to the specific case of a plane mirror tilted 8.2 deg with respect to an incident converging beam with a numerical aperture of 0.1. We find that the magnitudes of the field-independent aberration coefficients for the graded coating are approximately ten times smaller than those for the uniform coating. We show that a coating can introduce anamorphic magnification.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(310.1620) Thin films : Interference coatings
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties
Chen Liang, Michael R. Descour, Jose M. Sasian, and Scott A. Lerner, "Multilayer-Coating-Induced Aberrations in Extreme-Ultraviolet Lithography Optics," Appl. Opt. 40, 129-135 (2001)