OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 13 — May. 1, 2001
  • pp: 2216–2223

Scattering and thermal lensing of 2.12-µm laser radiation in biological tissue

Michael Ith, Martin Frenz, and Heinz P. Weber  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 13, pp. 2216-2223 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (257 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We studied light propagation of holmium:YAG laser radiation (λ = 2.12 µm) by measuring the two-dimensional laser beam profile before and after propagation through a tissue sample with a modified fast-temperature-measurement technique. The comparison between water and cartilage tissue allowed us to differentiate between beam broadening caused by formation of a thermal lens and broadening due to light scattering. In water, beam propagation is influenced by formation of thermal lensing, whereas in cartilage the broadening was caused by a combination of light scattering and thermal lensing. Additionally, we discovered that the observed effects are subject to dynamic changes during the laser–tissue interaction.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(000.1430) General : Biology and medicine
(040.1880) Detectors : Detection
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(170.0170) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics and biotechnology
(170.3660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Light propagation in tissues
(350.6830) Other areas of optics : Thermal lensing

Original Manuscript: September 8, 2000
Revised Manuscript: January 16, 2001
Published: May 1, 2001

Michael Ith, Martin Frenz, and Heinz P. Weber, "Scattering and thermal lensing of 2.12-µm laser radiation in biological tissue," Appl. Opt. 40, 2216-2223 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Motamedi, A. J. Welch, W. F. Cheong, S. Ghaffari, O. T. Tan, “Thermal lensing in biologic medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 693–696 (1988). [CrossRef]
  2. M. R. Jerath, C. M. Gardner, H. G. Rylander, A. J. Welch, “Dynamic optical property changes: implications for reflectance feedback control of photocoagulation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 16, 113–126 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Rastegar, B. M. Kim, S. L. Jacques, “Role of temperature dependence of optical properties in laser irradiation of biological tissue,” in Laser–Tissue Interaction III, S. L. Jacques, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1646, 228–231 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. J. T. Walsh, J. P. Cummings, “The effect of dynamic changes in the water absorption coefficient on mid-infrared laser ablation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 15, 295–305 (1993). [CrossRef]
  5. J. R. Collins, “Change in the infrared absorption spectrum of water with temperature,” Phys. Rev. 26, 771–779 (1925). [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Curcio, C. C. Petty, “The near infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 302–304 (1951). [CrossRef]
  7. A. L. McKenzie, “A three-zone model of soft-tissue damage by a CO2 laser,” Phys. Med. Biol. 31, 967–983 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Romano, A. D. Zweig, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Time-resolved thermal microscopy with fluorescent films,” Appl. Phys. B 49, 527–533 (1989). [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Germert, “Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, New York, 1995). [CrossRef]
  10. E. D. Jansen, T. G. van Leeuwen, M. Motamedi, C. Borst, A. J. Welch, “Temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient of water for mid-infrared laser radiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 258–264 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. S. L. Jacques, “Role of tissue optics and pulse duration on tissue effects during high-power laser irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2447–2454 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. F. Dillingham, J. M. Price, G. S. Fanton, “Holmium laser surgery,” Orthopedics 16, 563–566 (1993). [PubMed]
  13. C. J. Janecki, M. W. Perry, A. O. Bonati, M. Bendel, “Safe parameters for laser chondroplasty of the knee,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 141–150 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Lubbers, W. E. Siebert, “Holmium:YAG-laser-assisted arthroscopy versus conventional methods for treatment of the knee. two-year results of a prospective study,” Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 5, 168–175 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. U. Stäubli, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, H. P. Weber, “Side-effects of laser therapy on cartilage,” Sports Exercise Injury 2, 207–209 (1996).
  16. C. T. Vangsness, C. F. Smith, “Arthroscopic shoulder surgery with three different laser systems: an evaluation of laser applications,” Arthroscopy 11, 696–700 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. B. Trauner, N. S. Nishioka, T. Flotte, D. Patel, “Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to holmium:YAG laser irradiation,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 310, 52–57 (1995). [PubMed]
  18. K. O. Moller, B. M. Lind, K. Karcher, G. Hohlbach, “Holmium laser versus mechanical cartilage resection: comparative studies in the rabbit arthrosis model,” Langenbecks Arch. Chir. 379, 84–94 (1994).
  19. M. Buchelt, H. P. Kutschera, T. Katterschafka, H. Kiss, B. Schneider, R. Ullrich, “Er:YAG and Ho:YAG laser ablation of meniscus and intervertebral discs,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 375–381 (1992). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited