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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2001
  • pp: 2655–2661

Extreme-ultraviolet lensless Fourier-transform holography

Sang Hun Lee, Patrick Naulleau, Kenneth A. Goldberg, Chang Hyun Cho, SeongTae Jeong, and Jeffrey Bokor  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 16, pp. 2655-2661 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.002655


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Abstract

We demonstrate 100-nm-resolution holographic aerial image monitoring based on lensless Fourier-transform holography at extreme-UV (EUV) wavelengths, using synchrotron-based illumination. This method can be used to monitor the coherent imaging performance of EUV lithographic optical systems. The system has been implemented in the EUV phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Here we introduce the idea of the holographic aerial image-recording technique and present imaging performance characterization results for a 10× Schwarzschild objective, a prototype EUV lithographic optic. The results are compared with simulations, and good agreement is obtained. Various object patterns, including phase-shift-enhanced patterns, have been studied. Finally, the application of the holographic aerial image-recording technique to EUV multilayer mask-blank defect characterization is discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(050.5080) Diffraction and gratings : Phase shift
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(070.2590) Fourier optics and signal processing : ABCD transforms
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography

Citation
Sang Hun Lee, Patrick Naulleau, Kenneth A. Goldberg, Chang Hyun Cho, SeongTae Jeong, and Jeffrey Bokor, "Extreme-ultraviolet lensless Fourier-transform holography," Appl. Opt. 40, 2655-2661 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-40-16-2655


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References

  1. D. Williamson, “The elusive diffraction limit,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 68–76 (1995).
  2. S. Lee, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, and J. Bokor, “EUV holographic aerial image recording,” in SPIE Microlithography Conference in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, E. A. Dobisz, ed., Proc. SPIE 3997, 823–828 (2000).
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  8. E. M. Gullikson, S. L. Baker, J. E. Bjorkholm, J. Bokor, K. A. Goldberg, J. E. M. Goldsmith, C. Montcalm, P. Naulleau, E. A. Spiller, D. G. Stearns, J. S. Taylor, and J. H. Underwood, “EUV scattering and flare of 10× projection cameras,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirski, ed., Proc. SPIE 3676, 717–723 (1999).
  9. These data are available at http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_ constants/.
  10. P. Rai-Choudhury, Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining, and Microfabrication (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), pp. 74–82.
  11. S. Jeong, L. Johnson, S. Rekawa, C. C. Walton, S. T. Prisbrey, E. Tejnil, J. H. Underwood, and J. Bokor, “Actinic detection of sub-100 nm defects on extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blanks,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17, 3009–3013 (1999).
  12. S. H. Lee, J. Bokor, P. Naulleau, S. Jeong, and K. A. Goldberg, “Extreme ultraviolet holographic microscopy and its application to extreme ultraviolet mask-blank defect characterization,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2935–2938 (2000).

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