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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 16 — Jun. 1, 2001
  • pp: 2736–2746

Optimization and theoretical modeling of polymer microlens arrays fabricated with the hydrophobic effect

Daniel M. Hartmann, Osman Kibar, and Sadik C. Esener  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 16, pp. 2736-2746 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.002736


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Abstract

High-performance polymer microlens arrays were fabricated by means of withdrawing substrates of patterned wettability from a monomer solution. The f-number (f#) of formed microlenses was controlled by adjustment of monomer viscosity and surface tension, substrate dipping angle and withdrawal speed, the array fill factor, and the number of dip coats used. An optimum withdrawal speed was identified at which f# was minimized and array uniformity was maximized. At this optimum, arrays of f/3.48 microlenses were fabricated with one dip coat with uniformity of better than Δf/ f ∼ ±3.8%. Multiple dip coats allowed for production of f/1.38 lens arrays and uniformity of better than Δf/ f ∼ ±5.9%. Average f#s were reproducible to within 3.5%. A model was developed to describe the fluid-transfer process by which monomer solution assembles on the hydrophilic domains. The model agrees well with experimental trends.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(220.3620) Optical design and fabrication : Lens system design
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: April 3, 2000
Revised Manuscript: January 31, 2001
Published: June 1, 2001

Citation
Daniel M. Hartmann, Osman Kibar, and Sadik C. Esener, "Optimization and theoretical modeling of polymer microlens arrays fabricated with the hydrophobic effect," Appl. Opt. 40, 2736-2746 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-40-16-2736


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