OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2001
  • pp: 3082–3091

Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology

Annmarie Eldering, Fredrick W. Irion, Albert Y. Chang, Michael R. Gunson, Franklin P. Mills, and Helen M. Steele  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 18, pp. 3082-3091 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (311 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The wavelength-dependent aerosol extinction in the 800–1250-cm-1 region has been derived from ATMOS (atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy) high-spectral-resolution IR transmission measurements. Using models of aerosol and cloud extinction, we have performed weighted nonlinear least-squares fitting to determine the aerosol-volume columns and vertical profiles of stratospheric sulfate aerosol and cirrus cloud volume. Modeled extinction by use of cold-temperature aerosol optical constants for a 70–80% sulfuric-acid–water solution shows good agreement with the measurements, and the derived aerosol volumes for a 1992 occultation are consistent with data from other experiments after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The retrieved sulfuric acid aerosol-volume profiles are insensitive to the aerosol-size distribution and somewhat sensitive to the set of optical constants used. Data from the nonspherical cirrus extinction model agree well with a 1994 mid-latitude measurement indicating the presence of cirrus clouds at the tropopause.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1100) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosol detection
(280.1100) Remote sensing and sensors : Aerosol detection
(290.1090) Scattering : Aerosol and cloud effects

Original Manuscript: September 5, 2000
Revised Manuscript: February 1, 2001
Published: June 20, 2001

Annmarie Eldering, Fredrick W. Irion, Albert Y. Chang, Michael R. Gunson, Franklin P. Mills, and Helen M. Steele, "Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology," Appl. Opt. 40, 3082-3091 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. J. Charlson, J. Heintzenberg, eds., Dahlem Workshop Report on Aerosol Forcing of Climate (Wiley, New York, 1995).
  2. F. J. Dentener, G. R. Carmichael, Y. Zhang, J. Lelieveld, P. J. Crutzen, “Role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 22869–22889 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. M. King, Y. Kaufman, D. Tanré, T. Nakajima, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols from space: past, present, and future,” AMS Bull. 80, 2229–2259 (1999).
  5. D. L. Hartmann, P. Mouginis-Mark, “Volcanoes and climate effects of aerosol,” in EOS Science Plan, M. King, ed. (1999) ( http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/sci_plan/chapters.html ).
  6. B. Sen, G. C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, E. L. Fleming, C. H. Jackman, “Balloon-borne observations of mid-latitude fluorine abundances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9045–9054 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Sen, G. C. Toon, G. B. Osterman, J.-F. Blavier, J. J. Margitan, R. J. Salawitch, G. K. Yue, “Measurements of reactive nitrogen in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 3571–3585 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Carlotti, “Global-fit approach to the analysis of limb-scanning atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3250–3254 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. H. Norton, C. P. Rinsland, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. R. Brown, C. B. Farmer, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere by high resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy,” in Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Intersteller Medium, K. N. Rao, A. Webers, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992), pp. 97–143.
  11. M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawich, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2339 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. G. C. Toon, “The MkIV interferometer,” Opt. Photon. News 2, 19–21 (1991). [CrossRef]
  13. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).
  14. C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52(3/4), 241–252 (1994). [CrossRef]
  15. K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. T. Tisdale, D. L. Glandorf, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Infrared optical constants of low-temperature H2SO4 solutions representative of stratospheric sulfate aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25353–25370 (1998). [CrossRef]
  17. R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and composition-dependent infrared optical constants for sulfuric acid,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(24), 4477–4480 (1998). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Weis, G. E. Ewing, “Infrared spectroscopic signatures of (NH4)2SO4 aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18709–18720 (1996). [CrossRef]
  19. O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. G. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solutions, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25631–25654 (1994). [CrossRef]
  20. R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature-dependent and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998). [CrossRef]
  21. H. D. Downing, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared,” J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656–1661 (1975). [CrossRef]
  22. I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, R. W. Bergstrom, “Modeling the radiative characteristics of airborne mineral aerosols at infrared wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 8813–8826 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000). [CrossRef]
  24. M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995). [CrossRef]
  25. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997). [CrossRef]
  26. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996). [CrossRef]
  27. J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994). [CrossRef]
  28. V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielson, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, W. Fong, D. M. Hayes, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichon on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983). [CrossRef]
  29. R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994). [CrossRef]
  30. R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, F. W. Taylor, J. J. Remedios, C. D. Rodgers, M. Corney, B. J. Kerridge, “Infrared absorption by volcanic stratospheric aerosols observed by ISAMS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1283–1286 (1993). [CrossRef]
  31. G. Echle, T. von Clarmann, H. Oelhaf, “Optical and micrphysical parameters of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol as determined from MIPAS-B mid-IR limb emission spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19193–19211 (1998). [CrossRef]
  32. H. M. Steele, P. Hamill, “Effects of temperature and humidity on the growth and optical properties of sulfuric acid–water droplets in the stratosphere,” J. Aerosol Sci. 12, 517–528 (1981). [CrossRef]
  33. J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Interscience, New York, 1998), pp. 429–440.
  34. O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, “The optical constants of several atmospheric aerosol species: ammonium sulfate, aluminum oxide, and sodium chloride,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733–5748 (1976). [CrossRef]
  35. G. D’Almeida, “On the variability of desert aerosol radiative characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 3017–3026 (1987). [CrossRef]
  36. C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduini, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelson, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS-3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998). [CrossRef]
  37. A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997). [CrossRef]
  38. R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area, and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16507–16518 (1995). [CrossRef]
  39. L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, T. Deshler, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosol surface area density deduced from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements: 1984–1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8967–8976 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited