OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 20 — Jul. 10, 2001
  • pp: 3346–3353

Hidden Images in Halftone Pictures

Joseph Rosen and Bahram Javidi  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 20, pp. 3346-3353 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.003346


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (3129 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A method of concealing an image in a different halftone image is proposed. Continuous-tone levels of the visible images are represented by the area of the halftone dots. However, the hidden image is encoded by the dots’ positions inside their cells. Only a spatial correlator with a unique filter function can reveal the hidden image from the halftone picture. The technique and its robustness to noise and distortions are demonstrated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1380) Diffraction and gratings : Binary optics
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(070.4550) Fourier optics and signal processing : Correlators
(070.4560) Fourier optics and signal processing : Data processing by optical means
(070.6110) Fourier optics and signal processing : Spatial filtering
(090.1760) Holography : Computer holography
(100.2810) Image processing : Halftone image reproduction

Citation
Joseph Rosen and Bahram Javidi, "Hidden Images in Halftone Pictures," Appl. Opt. 40, 3346-3353 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-40-20-3346


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. O. Bryngdahl, T. Scheermesser, and F. Wyrowski, “Digital halftoning: synthesis of binary images,” in Progress In Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1994), Vol. 33, pp. 389–463.
  2. D. Kermisch and P. G. Roetling, “Fourier spectrum of halftone images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 65, 716–723 (1975).
  3. B. Javidi, “Securing information with optical technologies,” Phys. Today 50(3), 27–32 (1997).
  4. F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, and M. G. Kuhn, “Information hiding—survey,” Proc. IEEE 87, 1062–1077 (1999).
  5. F. Hartung and M. Kutter, “Watermarking digital image and video data,” IEEE Signal Proc. Mag. 17(5), 20–46 (2000).
  6. R. L. van Renesse, ed. Optical Document Security, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1998), Chap. 18, p. 427.
  7. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996), Chap. 8, p. 232.
  8. A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
  9. Ref. 7, Chap. 8, p. 243.
  10. Ref. 7, Chap. 8, p. 282.
  11. J. Rosen, “Learning in correlators based on projections onto constraint sets,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1183–1185 (1993).
  12. O. Bryngdahl and F. Wyrowski, “Digital holography/computer-generated holograms,” in Progress In Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1990), Vol. 28, pp. 1–86.
  13. A. W. Lohmann and D. P. Paris, “Binary Fraunhofer holograms generated by computer,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1739–1748 (1967).
  14. A. K. Jennison, J. P. Allebach, and D. W. Sweeney, “Iterative approaches to computer-generated holography,” Opt. Eng. 28, 629–637 (1989).
  15. Ref. 7, Chap. 7, p. 184.
  16. Y. Li, K. Kreske, and J. Rosen, “Security and encryption optical systems based on a correlator with significant output images,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5295–5301 (2000).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited