OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 22 — Aug. 1, 2001
  • pp: 3640–3648

Design of efficient lightpipes for illumination by an analytical approach

Anurag Gupta, Junwon Lee, and R. John Koshel  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 22, pp. 3640-3648 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2202 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present the concept of principal sections of a lightpipe to analyze the propagation of light through the lightpipe by total internal reflection. Only the principal sections determine the acceptance angle and thus help in the identification of regions where the leakage occurs first. Use of principal sections for analysis leads to a significant reduction in the design effort. We present an analysis of several commonly used lightpipe configurations, e.g., straight and single circular bend, and different cross sections, e.g., elliptical and rectangular. This analysis leads to the maximization of throughput and transfer efficiency. The uniformity characteristics of elementary configurations and scaling factors for a lightpipe with a single circular bend are also discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides

Original Manuscript: October 30, 2000
Revised Manuscript: March 27, 2001
Published: August 1, 2001

Anurag Gupta, Junwon Lee, and R. John Koshel, "Design of efficient lightpipes for illumination by an analytical approach," Appl. Opt. 40, 3640-3648 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Y. Oki, “Novel backlight with high luminance and low power consumption by prism-on-lightpipe technology,” SID Dig. 29, 157–160 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. H. J. Cornelissen, M. J. J. Donna, H. Greiner, “Frontlights for reflective LCDs based on lightguides with micro-grooves,” SID Dig. 30, 912–915 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Decker, “CELIS–a concept for high-quality car interior lighting with light-guide technology,” SAE Tech. Paper 960488 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).
  4. J. Spigulis, D. Pfafords, “Clinical potential of side-glowing optical fibers,” in Speciality Fiber Optics for Biomedical and Industrial Applications, A. Katzir, J. A. Harrington, eds., Proc. SPIE2977, 84–88 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. H. van den Bergh, “On the evoution of some endoscopic light delivery systems for photodynamic therapy,” Endoscopy 30, 392–407 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Poppendieck, D. Brown, “Control of light output from plastic optical fiber with optical elements,” SAE Tech. Paper 960491 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1996).
  7. D. J. Lamb, J. F. V. Derlofske, L. W. Hillman, “The use of aspheric surfaces in waveguide illumination systems for automotive displays,” SAE Tech. Paper 980874 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  8. R. Edmonds, J. Reppel, P. Jardine, “Extractors and emitters for light distribution from hollow light guides,” Light. Res. Technol. 29, 23–32 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Teijido, H. P. Herzig, C. Fuhrer, P. J. Evard, “Design methods for illumination lightpipes,” in Illumination and Source Engineering, A. V. Arecchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3428, 34–44 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. T. L. Davenport, R. L. Hansler, T. E. Stenger, W. J. Cassarly, G. R. Allen, R. F. Buelow, “Changes in angular and spatial distribution introduced into fiber optic headlamp by the fiber optic cables,” SAE Tech. Paper 960490 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  11. I. M. Bassett, G. W. Forbes, “A new class of non-imaging transformers,” Opt. Acta 29, 1271–1282 (1982). [CrossRef]
  12. G. W. Forbes, I. M. Bassett, “An axially symmetric variable-angle nonimaging transformer,” Opt. Acta 29, 1283–1297 (1982). [CrossRef]
  13. J. V. Derlofske, “Nonrotationally symmetric mirrors provide even light,” Laser Focus World (July1999), pp. S23–S25.
  14. J. Schweyen, D. Jenkins, “Smart lightpipe designs,” Photonics Spectra (January1997), pp. 101–103.
  15. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1980).
  16. Breault Research Organization, Inc., Advanced System Analysis Program (Tucson, Ariz., 1995).
  17. B. J. Cassarly, “Design of efficient illumination systems,” short course presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Denver, Colorado, 18–23 July 1999.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited