OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 29 — Oct. 10, 2001
  • pp: 5248–5252

Characterization of two-color holography performance in reduced LiNbO3:In

Guoquan Zhang, Steven Sunarno, Mitsunari Hoshi, Yasuo Tomita, Chunhui Yang, and Wusheng Xu  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 29, pp. 5248-5252 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (100 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The two-color recording sensitivity S and the figure of merit M/# are measured in a reduced and congruent LiNbO3:In crystal of 2.2-mm thickness. The results are compared with those before reduction treatment. It is found that S increases by an order of magnitude through reduction treatment but the M/# is unchanged. Measured values for S and M/# in the reduced crystal are found to be 3 × 10-3 cm/J and 0.04, respectively, with a total writing intensity of 4.0 W/cm2 at 780 nm and a gating intensity of 1.15 W/cm2 at 488 nm. These values are close to those of near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals under similar recording conditions. We also show that photoconductivity plays an important role in the improvement of S in LiNbO3:In.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.2900) Materials : Optical storage materials
(160.5320) Materials : Photorefractive materials
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics
(210.2860) Optical data storage : Holographic and volume memories
(210.4810) Optical data storage : Optical storage-recording materials

Original Manuscript: February 5, 2001
Published: October 10, 2001

Guoquan Zhang, Steven Sunarno, Mitsunari Hoshi, Yasuo Tomita, Chunhui Yang, and Wusheng Xu, "Characterization of two-color holography performance in reduced LiNbO3:In," Appl. Opt. 40, 5248-5252 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, “Multiphoton photorefractive processes for optical storage in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 155–157 (1974). [CrossRef]
  2. D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, “Optical storage using refractive index changes induced by two-step excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217–220 (1976). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Buse, F. Jermann, E. Krätzig, “Infrared holographic recording in LiNbO3:Cu,” Appl. Phys. A 58, 191–195 (1994). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. S. Bai, R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile holographic storage with two-step recording in lithium niobate using cw lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944–2947 (1997). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Buse, A. Adibi, D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Tanaka, “Non-volatile two-color holographic recording in Tb-doped LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1653–1655 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282, 1089–1094 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Guenther, R. Macfarlane, Y. Furukawa, K. Kitamura, R. Neurgaonkar, “Two-color holography in reduced near-stoichiometric lithium niobate,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7611–7623 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Lee, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, H. Hatano, S. Tanaka, “Photochromic effect in near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 and two-color holographic recording,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4476–4485 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Zhang, Y. Tomita, W. Xu, Ch. Yang, “Nonvolatile two-color holography in indium-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3508–3510 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. F. H. Mok, G. W. Burr, D. Psaltis, “System metric for holographic memory systems,” Opt. Lett. 21, 896–898 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Koppitz, O. F. Schirmer, M. Wöhlecke, A. I. Kuznetsov, B. C. Grabmaier, “Threshold effects in LiNbO3:Mg caused by change of electron-lattice coupling,” Ferroelectrics 92, 233–241 (1989). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Volk, N. Rubinina, M. Wöhlecke, “Optical-damage-resistant impurities in lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1681–1687 (1994). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Volk, M. Wöhlecke, N. Rubinina, N. V. Razumovski, F. Jermann, C. Fischer, R. Böwer, “LiNbO3 with the damage-resistant impurity indium,” Appl. Phys. A 60, 217–225 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Berben, K. Buse, S. Wevering, P. Herth, M. Imlau, Th. Woike, “Lifetime of small polarons in iron-doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1034–1041 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited