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Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 32 — Nov. 10, 2001
  • pp: 5830–5839

Diffractive optical elements as raster-image generators

Matthias Gruber  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 32, pp. 5830-5839 (2001)

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The use of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) to generate complex raster images for a primarily artistic purpose is dealt with. Aspects of human vision that are relevant for the design of such elements are discussed. A design method based on an iterative Fourier transform algorithm and extended with elements from the direct-binary-search and the simulated-annealing algorithms is described. The proposed method provides a large set of parameters that can be adjusted freely to optimize it for any given design task. For demonstration a phase-only DOE was designed that generates an image of a Chinese dragon as a diffraction pattern. It was realized as a surface-relief element on a planar substrate through multilevel binary lithography and reactive-ion etching. Experimental tests confirm the usefulness of the design and the fabrication procedures to achieve excellent image quality.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1380) Diffraction and gratings : Binary optics
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(070.4550) Fourier optics and signal processing : Correlators
(100.2810) Image processing : Halftone image reproduction
(100.5090) Image processing : Phase-only filters

Original Manuscript: August 30, 2000
Revised Manuscript: May 24, 2001
Published: November 10, 2001

Matthias Gruber, "Diffractive optical elements as raster-image generators," Appl. Opt. 40, 5830-5839 (2001)

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