OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 32 — Nov. 10, 2001
  • pp: 5852–5859

Efficient beam shaping of linear, high-power diode lasers by use of micro-optics

Andreas Schilling, Hans Peter Herzig, Laurent Stauffer, Urs Vokinger, and Markus Rossi  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 32, pp. 5852-5859 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1906 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have designed, fabricated, and characterized a micro-optical beam-shaping device that is intended to optimize the coupling of an incoherent, linearly extended high-power diode laser into a multimode fiber. The device uses two aligned diffractive optical elements (DOEs) in combination with conventional optics. With a first prototype, we achieved an overall efficiency of 28%. Straightforward improvements, such as antireflective coatings and the use of gray-tone elements, are expected to lead to an efficiency of approximately 50%. The device is compact, and its fabrication is suited for mass production at low cost. This micro-optical device, used in a range-finder measurement system, will extend the measurement range. In addition to the direct laser writing technique, which was used for fabrication of the DOEs of the prototype, we applied two other technologies for the fabrication of the micro-optical elements and compared their performance. The technologies were multiple-projection photolithography in combination with reactive-ion etching in fused silica and high-energy beam-sensitive glass gray-tone lithography in photoresist. We found that refractive-type elements (gray tone) yield better efficiency for large deflection angles, whereas diffractive elements (multilevel or laser written) give intrinsically accurate deflection angles.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication

Original Manuscript: November 17, 2000
Revised Manuscript: June 27, 2001
Published: November 10, 2001

Andreas Schilling, Hans Peter Herzig, Laurent Stauffer, Urs Vokinger, and Markus Rossi, "Efficient beam shaping of linear, high-power diode lasers by use of micro-optics," Appl. Opt. 40, 5852-5859 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. Gächter, A. Schilling, L. Stauffer, U. Vokinger, “Optischer Entfernungsmesser,” European patent application00108836.8 (20June2000); patent pending.
  2. J. R. Leger, W. C. Goltsos, “Geometrical transformation of linear diode-laser arrays for longitudinal pumping of solid state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1088–1100 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. J. N. Mait, “Understanding diffractive optic design in the scalar domain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2145–2158 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. C. Kopp, L. Ravel, P. Meyrueis, “Efficient beamshaper homogenizer design combining diffractive optical elements, microlens array and random phase plate,” J. Opt. A 1, 398–403 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Ehbets, H. P. Herzig, R. Dändliker, P. Regnault, I. Kjelberg, “Beam shaping of high-power laser diode arrays by continuous surface-relief elements,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 637–645 (1993). [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Goodmann, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
  7. U. Vokinger, “Propagation, modification and analysis of partial coherent light fields,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1999).
  8. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, “Continuous-relief diffractive lenses and microlens arrays,” in Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications, J. Turunen, F. Wyrowski, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Chap. 4.
  9. M. T. Gale, Th. Hessler, R. E. Kunz, H. Teichmann, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optics: progress in laser writing and replication technology,” in Diffractive Optics and Microoptics, Vol. 5 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 335.
  10. M. B. Stern, “Binary optics fabrication” in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), Chap. 3.
  11. C. Wu, “Method of making high energy beam sensitive glass,” U.S. patent5,078,771 (7January1992).
  12. W. Däschner, C. Wu, S. H. Lee, “General aspheric refractive micro-optics fabricated by optical lithography using a high energy beam sensitive glass gray-level mask,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 135–138 (1996). [CrossRef]
  13. Ch. Gimkiewicz, D. Hagedorn, J. Jahns, E.-B. Kley, F. Thoma, “Fabrication of microprisms for planar optical interconnections by use of analog gray-scale lithography with high-energy-beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2986–2990 (1999). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited