The periodic domain inversion by direct electron-beam (EB) bombardment on Ti:LiNbO<sub>3</sub> is presented. Gratings with a 6.6-μm period are achieved. The inverted patterns are observed after chemical etching by use of a scanning electron microscope, and they exhibit a high resolution, as expected. Next, the influence of the EB parameters on the inversion phenomenon is developed for both LiNbO<sub>3</sub> and Ti:LiNbO<sub>3</sub>. In this way we can provide an explanation of the phenomenon of domain inversion with an EB, which is not completely understood. Finally, quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation is presented in bulk LiNbO<sub>3</sub> by use of a Nd:YAG laser light. These experiments allowed us to achieve the characteristics of the inverted domains along the crystal in particular.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
Christine Restoin, Claire Darraud-Taupiac, Jean-Louis Decossas, Jean-Claude Vareille, Vincent Couderc, Alain Barthélémy, Anthony Martinez, and Jérôme Hauden, "Electron-Beam Poling on Ti:LiNbO3," Appl. Opt. 40, 6056-6061 (2001)