A sensor for the rapid (10-ms response time) measurement of vapors from the hydrocarbon-based fuels JP-8, DF-2, and gasoline is described. The sensor is based on a previously reported laser-mixing technique that uses two tunable diode lasers emitting in the near-infrared spectral region [Appl. Opt. <b>39,</b> 5006 (2000)] to measure concentrations of gases that have unstructured absorption spectra. The fiber-mixed laser beam consists of two wavelengths: one that is absorbed by the fuel vapor and one that is not absorbed. Sinusoidally modulating the power of the two lasers at the same frequency but 180° out of phase allows a sinusoidal signal to be generated at the detector (when the target gas is present in the line of sight). The signal amplitude, measured by use of standard phase-sensitive detection techniques, is proportional to the fuel-vapor concentration. Limits of detection at room temperature are reported for the vapors of the three fuels studied. Improvements to be incorporated into the next generation of the sensor are discussed.
© 2001 Optical Society of America
(120.0120) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology
(120.1880) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Detection
(140.2020) Lasers and laser optics : Diode lasers
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
Kevin L. McNesby, Richard T. Wainner, Robert G. Daniel, R. Reed Skaggs, Jeffrey B. Morris, Andrzej W. Miziolek, William M. Jackson, and Ian A. McLaren, "Detection and Measurement of Middle-Distillate Fuel Vapors by Use of Tunable Diode Lasers," Appl. Opt. 40, 840-845 (2001)