OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 6 — Feb. 20, 2001
  • pp: 890–896

Analysis of Fiber Bragg Gratings by a Side-Diffraction Interference Technique

Fouad El-Diasty, Alan Heaney, and Turan Erdogan  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 6, pp. 890-896 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.000890


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (117 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A new nondestructive, noncontact, and sensitive technique for fiber Bragg grating geometry and index-fault location measurements is presented. Two plane-wave probe laser beams are incident upon the grating from the side at angles that satisfy the Bragg-reflection condition. An interference pattern is formed behind the fiber between the first-order diffracted beam (from one probe beam) and the zero-order transmitted beam (from the second probe beam). The axial grating index modulation and the grating period are functions of the fringe visibility and the fringe period, respectively. The method is sensitive and is applicable even in the case of relatively weak gratings. Unchirped and chirped Bragg gratings have been studied with the proposed technique. We demonstrate accuracies of 1 × 10<sup>−4</sup> for measurement of the index modulation and 0.01 nm for measurement of the period. As well as for the analysis of most already-fabricated gratings, this technique is useful for <i>in situ</i> analysis of a long fiber Bragg grating as such a grating is translated along its axis during the fabrication process.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(090.2880) Holography : Holographic interferometry
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors

Citation
Fouad El-Diasty, Alan Heaney, and Turan Erdogan, "Analysis of Fiber Bragg Gratings by a Side-Diffraction Interference Technique," Appl. Opt. 40, 890-896 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-40-6-890


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309–4341 (1997).
  2. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, “Photosensitivity in optical fibre waveguides: application to reflection filter fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647–649 (1978).
  3. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, and D. C. Johnson, “Photosensitivity in optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 125–157 (1993).
  4. W. W. Morey, G. A. Ball, and G. Meltz, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Photon. News 5, 8–14 (1994).
  5. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
  6. Y. Rao, “In-fibre Bragg grating sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 355–375 (1997).
  7. D. Pastor, J. Capmany, D. Ortega, V. Tatay, and J. Marti, “Design of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2581–2588 (1996).
  8. B. J. Eggleton, P. A. Krug, L. Poladian, K. A. Ahmed, and H. F. Liu, “Experimental demonstration of compression of dispersed optical pulses by reflection from self-chirped optical fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 19, 877–879 (1994).
  9. T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277–1294 (1997).
  10. J. E. Roman and K. A. Winick, “Waveguide grating filters for dispersion compensation and pulse compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 975–982 (1993).
  11. E. Brinkmeyer, “Simple algorithm for reconstructing fiber gratings from reflectometric data,” Opt. Lett. 20, 810–812 (1995).
  12. K. Takada, I. Yokohama, K. Chida, and J. Noda, “New measurement system for fault location in optical waveguide devices based on an interferometric technique,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1603–1606 (1987).
  13. B. L. Danielson and C. D. Whittenberg, “Guided-wave reflectometry with micrometer resolution,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2836–2842 (1987).
  14. P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, Ch. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, “Bragg grating characterization by optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565–567 (1993).
  15. W. Margulis, I. G. Carvalho, and P. M. Gouvea, “Heat scan: a simple technique to study gratings in fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1016–1018 (1993).
  16. J. Canning, M. Jason, and M. G. Sceats, “Rayleigh z-scan profiling of grating structures and resonances in optical fibers using side scattered light,” in Twentieth Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (Information, Telecommunications & Electronics Engineering Society, Kingston, Australia, 1995), pp. 303–306.
  17. E. Brinkmeyer, G. Soltze, and D. Johlen, “Optical space domain reflectometry (OSDR) for determination of strength and chirp distribution along optical fiber gratings, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals,” Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 33–36.
  18. P. A. Krug, R. Stolte, and R. Ulrich, “Measurement of index modulation along an optical fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1767–1769 (1995).
  19. N. Roussel, S. Magne, C. Martinez, and P. Ferdinand, “Measurement of index modulation along fiber Bragg gratings by side scattering and local heating techniques,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 119–132 (1999).
  20. P.-Y. Fonjallaz and P. Borjel, “Interferometric side diffraction technique for the characterization of fibre gratings,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, E. J. Friebele, R. Kashyap, and T. Erdogan, eds., Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000).
  21. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Sys. Tech. J. 48, 9209–2947 (1969).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited