OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 7 — Mar. 1, 2001
  • pp: 1155–1164

Fiber-optic probe for noninvasive real-time determination of tissue optical properties at multiple wavelengths

Jan S. Dam, Carsten B. Pedersen, Torben Dalgaard, Paul Erik Fabricius, Prakasa Aruna, and Stefan Andersson-Engels  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 7, pp. 1155-1164 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (294 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a compact, fast, and versatile fiber-optic probe system for real-time determination of tissue optical properties from spatially resolved continuous-wave diffuse reflectance measurements. The system collects one set of reflectance data from six source–detector distances at four arbitrary wavelengths with a maximum overall sampling rate of 100 Hz. Multivariate calibration techniques based on two-dimensional polynomial fitting are employed to extract and display the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in real-time mode. The four wavelengths of the current configuration are 660, 785, 805, and 974 nm, respectively. Cross-validation tests on a 6 × 7 calibration matrix of Intralipid–dye phantoms showed that the mean prediction error at, e.g., 785 nm was 2.8% for the absorption coefficient and 1.3% for the reduced scattering coefficient. The errors are relative to the range of the optical properties of the phantoms at 785 nm, which were 0–0.3/cm for the absorption coefficient and 6–16/cm for the reduced scattering coefficient. Finally, we also present and discuss results from preliminary skin tissue measurements.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.1470) Medical optics and biotechnology : Blood or tissue constituent monitoring
(170.1580) Medical optics and biotechnology : Chemometrics
(170.3890) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical optics instrumentation
(170.6510) Medical optics and biotechnology : Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics

Original Manuscript: May 26, 2000
Revised Manuscript: December 7, 2000
Published: March 1, 2001

Jan S. Dam, Carsten B. Pedersen, Torben Dalgaard, Paul Erik Fabricius, Prakasa Aruna, and Stefan Andersson-Engels, "Fiber-optic probe for noninvasive real-time determination of tissue optical properties at multiple wavelengths," Appl. Opt. 40, 1155-1164 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, M. W. Star, B. C. Wilson, “Overview of tissue optics,” Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue, A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1995), Chap. 2.
  2. J. W. Feather, D. J. Ellis, G. Leslie, “A portable reflectometer for the rapid quantification of cutaneous haemoglobin and melanin,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 711–722 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. L. Jacques, “Reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber devices, and transcutaneous bilirubinometers,” in Biomedical Optical Instrumentation and Laser-Assisted Biotechnology, A. M. Verga Scheggi, S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, R. Pratesi, eds., Vol. E325 of NATO ASI Series (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 83–94.
  4. M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, “Noninvasive optical method of measuring tissue and arterial saturation: an application to absolute pulse oximetry of the brain,” Opt. Lett. 24, 829–831 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Jacques, “Origins of tissue optical properties in the UVA, Visible, and NIR regions,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, R. R. Alfano, J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Vol. 2 of OSA Topics in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), 364–369.
  6. A. H. Hielscher, J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, “Influence of particle size and concentration on the diffuse backscattering of polarized light from tissue phantoms and biological cell suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 125–135 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, D. Shen, T. M. Johnson, “Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3586–3593 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. J. T. Bruulsema, J. E. Hayward, T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, L. Heinemann, M. Berger, T. Koschinsky, C. J. Sandahl, H. Orskov, M. Essenpreis, R. G. Schmelzeisen, D. Bocker, “Correlation between blood glucose concentration in diabetics and noninvasively measured tissue optical scattering coefficient,” Opt. Lett. 22, 190–192 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2331–2336 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, A. Persson, S. Svanberg, “Multispectral tissue characterization with time-resolved detection of diffusely scattered white light,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1697–1699 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Chance, M. Cope, E. Gratton, N. Ramanujam, B. Tromberg, “Phase measurement of light absorption and scatter in human tissue,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3457–3481 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, E. Gratton, “Frequency-domain multichannel optical detector for noninvasive tissue spectroscopy and oximetry,” Opt. Eng. 34, 32–42 (1995). [CrossRef]
  13. T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Marquet, F. Bevilacqua, C. Depeursinge, E. B. De-Haller, “Determination of reduced scattering and absorption coefficients by a single charge-coupled-device array measurement. I. Comparison between experiments and simulations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2055–2063 (1995). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, B. C. Wilson, “Spatially resolved absolute diffuse reflectance measurements for noninvasive determination of the optical scattering and absorption coefficients of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2304–2314 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Bays, G. Wagnieres, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J. F. Savary, P. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. R. Mourant, T. Fuselier, J. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, I. J. Bigio, “Predictions and measurements of scattering and absorption over broad wavelength ranges in tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 949–957 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. G. Nichols, E. L. Hull, T. H. Foster, “Design and testing of a white-light, steady-state diffuse reflectance spectrometer for determination of optical properties of highly scattering systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 93–104 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. S. Dam, P. E. Andersen, T. Dalgaard, P. E. Fabricius, “Determination of tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance profiles by multivariate calibration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 772–778 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. R. M. Doornbos, L. Lang, R. Alders, F. W. Cross, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967–981 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. H. Pham, F. Bevilacqua, T. Spott, J. S. Dam, B. Tromberg, S. Andersson-Engels, “Quantifying the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissuelike turbid media over a broad spectral range with a noncontact Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6487–6497.
  22. L. V. Wang, “Source of error in calculation of optical diffuse reflectance from turbid media using diffusion theory,” Comput. Methods Program Biomed. 61, 163–170 (2000). [CrossRef]
  23. L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Q. Zheng, “MCML—Monte Carlo modeling of photon transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Program Biomed. 47, 131–146 (1995). [CrossRef]
  24. T. J. Farrell, B. C. Wilson, M. S. Patterson, “The use of a neural network to determine tissue optical properties from spatially resolved diffuse reflectance measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 2281–2286 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980), Vols. I and II.
  26. R. Graff, J. G. Aarnoudse, F. F. M. de MulHenk, W. Jentink, “Similarity relations for anisotropic scattering in absorbing media,” Opt. Eng. 32, 244–252 (1993). [CrossRef]
  27. J. S. Dam, T. Dalgaard, P. E. Fabricius, S. Andersson-Engels, “Multiple polynomial regression method for determination of biomedical optical properties from integrating sphere measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1202–1209 (2000). [CrossRef]
  28. W. F. Cheong, A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990). [CrossRef]
  29. H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4507–4514 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992). [CrossRef]
  31. S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Use of the water absorption spectrum to quantify tissue chromophore concentration changes in near-infrared spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 177–196 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, D. A. Jack, T. M. Johnson, H. D. Miller, “Measuring absorption coefficients in small volumes of highly scattering media: source–detector separations for which path lengths do not depend on scattering properties,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5655–5661 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. Kumar, “Optimal probe geometry for near-infrared spectroscopy of biological tissue,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2286–2293 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. C. R. Simpson, M. Kohl, M. Essenpreis, M. Cope, “Near-infrared optical properties of ex vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues measured using the Monte Carlo inversion technique,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 2465–2478 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. F. P. Bolin, L. E. Preuss, R. C. Taylor, R. J. Ference, “Refractive index of some mammalian tissues,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2297–2303 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited