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Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 40, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 2001
  • pp: 1459–1463

Optical design of a hollow cube-corner retroreflector for a geosynchronous satellite

Atsushi Minato, Satoru Ozawa, and Nobuo Sugimoto  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 9, pp. 1459-1463 (2001)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.001459


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Abstract

The optical characteristics of a single-element hollow cube-corner retroreflector for a geosynchronous satellite were numerically evaluated for laser ranging and laser long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric species. An optical design with spherical surfaces and tuned dihedral angles was considered to compensate for velocity aberrations. The parameters for the retroreflector were optimized with genetic algorithms for different retroreflector sizes and wavelengths (500 nm and 1, 3, and 10 µm). We found that 20-cm retroreflectors are sufficient for realistic measurements when the laser wavelength is 500 nm or 1 µm. However, a larger retroreflector is necessary to overcome the detector noise level at 3 and 10 µm.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(080.2740) Geometric optics : Geometric optical design
(280.1120) Remote sensing and sensors : Air pollution monitoring
(280.3640) Remote sensing and sensors : Lidar

History
Original Manuscript: February 25, 2000
Revised Manuscript: November 27, 2000
Published: March 20, 2001

Citation
Atsushi Minato, Satoru Ozawa, and Nobuo Sugimoto, "Optical design of a hollow cube-corner retroreflector for a geosynchronous satellite," Appl. Opt. 40, 1459-1463 (2001)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-40-9-1459


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References

  1. A. Minato, N. Sugimoto, Y. Sasano, “Optical design of cube corner retroreflectors having curved mirror surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6015–6020 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Sugimoto, A. Minato, “Data reduction method for the laser long-path absorption measurement of atmospheric trace species using the retroreflector in space,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 1585–1590 (1995).
  3. N. Sugimoto, A. Minato, “Optical characteristics of the Retroreflector in Space for the Earth Observing Satellite,” Opt. Rev. 3, 62–64 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Sugimoto, N. Koga, I. Matsui, Y. Sasano, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, H. Kunimori, I. Murata, H. Fukunishi, “Earth–satellite–Earth laser long-path absorption experiment using the Retroreflector in Space (RIS) on the advanced earth observing satellite,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 201–209 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Riepl, U. Schreiber, W. Schlueter, “WLRS streak camera experiment,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 19–30 (1997).
  6. T. W. Zagwodzki, J. F. McGarry, J. J. Degnan, T. K. Varghese, “Two-color SLR experiments at the GSFC 1.2-m telescope,” in Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, U. Schreiber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE3218, 113–124 (1997).
  7. A. Minato, N. Sugimoto, “Design of four-element, hollow-cube corner retroreflector for satellites by use of a genetic algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 438–442 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Holland, Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1992).
  9. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).
  10. N. Sugimoto, A. Minato, K. Ozawa, Y. Saito, A. Nomura, “Theoretical evaluation of Earth-to-satellite laser long-path absorption measurement of atmospheric trace species in the infrared region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2329–2334 (1995). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Walker, Astronomical Observations: an Optical Perspective (Cambridge University, Cambridge, England, 1987).

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