OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 40, Iss. 9 — Mar. 20, 2001
  • pp: 1501–1506

Continuous-wave bistatic laser Doppler wind sensor

Michael Harris, Graham Constant, and Carol Ward  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 40, Issue 9, pp. 1501-1506 (2001)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (102 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A coherent laser radar has been built by use of a master-oscillator power-amplifier arrangement in which the master oscillator is an external-cavity semiconductor laser and the power amplifier is an erbium-doped fiber amplifier with ∼1-W output at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. The beams are routed within single-mode optical fiber, allowing modular construction of the optical layout with standard components. The system employs separate transmit and receive optics (a bistatic configuration) and has sufficient sensitivity for reliable Doppler wind-speed detection in moderate scattering conditions at short range (to as much as ∼200 m). The bistatic arrangement leads to a well-defined probe volume formed by the intersection of the transmitted laser beam with the virtual backpropagated local-oscillator beam. This could be advantageous for applications in which the precise localization of wind speed is required (e.g., wind tunnel studies) or in which smoke, low cloud, or solid objects can lead to spurious signals. The confinement of the probe volume also leads to a reduction in the signal power. A theoretical study has been carried out on the reduction in wind signal strength compared with the monostatic arrangement, and the results are compared with experimental observation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(280.0280) Remote sensing and sensors : Remote sensing and sensors
(280.3400) Remote sensing and sensors : Laser range finder

Original Manuscript: March 20, 2000
Revised Manuscript: November 17, 2000
Published: March 20, 2001

Michael Harris, Graham Constant, and Carol Ward, "Continuous-wave bistatic laser Doppler wind sensor," Appl. Opt. 40, 1501-1506 (2001)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. See, for example, J. M. Vaughan, K. O. Steinvall, C. Werner, P. H. Flamant, “Coherent laser radar in Europe,” Proc. IEEE 84, 205–226 (1996).
  2. C. M. Sonnenschein, F. A. Horrigan, “Signal-to-noise relationships for coaxial systems that heterodyne backscatter from the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1600–1604 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Werner, F. Köpp, R. Schwiesow, “Influence of clouds and fog on LDA wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2482–2484 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1976).
  5. T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high-resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16, 630–631 (1980). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, C. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Karlsson, F. Olsson, D. Letalick, M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 µm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. R. G. Frehlich, M. J. Yadlowsky, “Performance of mean-frequency estimators for Doppler radar and lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 11, 1217–1230 (1994). [CrossRef]
  9. A. E. Siegman, “The antenna properties of optical heterodyne receivers,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1588–1594 (1966). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. J. Rye, “Refractive-turbulence contribution to incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar returns,” J. Opt. Soc. Am 71, 687–691 (1981). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, C. A. Hill, J. M. Vaughan, “Higher moments of scattered light fields by heterodyne analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7226–7230 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. L. McGann, “Flight test results from a low-power Doppler optical air data sensor,” in Air Traffic Control Technologies, R. G. Otto, J. Lenz, eds., Proc. SPIE2464, 116–124 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, K. D. Ridley, C. Karlsson, F. Olsson, D. Letalick, “Single-particle laser Doppler anemometry at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Opt. 40, 969–973 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. V. Srivastava, M. A. Jarzembski, D. A. Bowdle, “Comparison of calculated aerosol backscatter at 9.1- and 2.1-µm wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1904–1906 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited