OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics

APPLICATIONS-CENTERED RESEARCH IN OPTICS

  • Vol. 41, Iss. 15 — May. 20, 2002
  • pp: 2768–2780

Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements

Brian H. Kahn, Annmarie Eldering, Fredrick W. Irion, Franklin P. Mills, Bhaswar Sen, and Michael R. Gunson  »View Author Affiliations


Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 15, pp. 2768-2780 (2002)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.002768


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (4441 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

High-resolution infrared nongas absorption spectra derived from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment are analyzed for evidence of the presence of cirrus clouds. Several nonspherical ice extinction models based on realistic size distributions and crystal habits along with a stratospheric sulfate aerosol model are fit to the spectra, and comparisons are made with different model combinations. Nonspherical ice models often fit observed transmission spectra better than a spherical Mie ice model, and some discrimination among nonspherical models is noted. The ATMOS lines of sight for eight occultations are superimposed on coincident geostationary satellite infrared imagery, and brightness temperatures along the lines of sight are compared with retrieved vertical temperature profiles. With these comparisons, studies of two cases of clear sky, three cases of opaque cirrus, and three cases of patchy cirrus are discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1100) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Aerosol detection
(010.1320) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric transmittance
(010.3920) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Meteorology
(010.7030) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Troposphere
(280.1100) Remote sensing and sensors : Aerosol detection
(290.1090) Scattering : Aerosol and cloud effects

History
Original Manuscript: September 21, 2001
Revised Manuscript: January 15, 2002
Published: May 20, 2002

Citation
Brian H. Kahn, Annmarie Eldering, Fredrick W. Irion, Franklin P. Mills, Bhaswar Sen, and Michael R. Gunson, "Cloud identification in Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements," Appl. Opt. 41, 2768-2780 (2002)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-41-15-2768


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986). [CrossRef]
  2. G. L. Stephens, S.-C. Tsay, P. W. Stackhouse, P. J. Flatau, “The relevance of the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds to climate and climate feedback,” J. Atmos. Sci. 47, 1742–1753 (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Prabhakara, D. P. Kratz, J.-M. Yoo, G. Dalu, A. Vernekar, “Optically thin cirrus clouds: radiative impact on the warm pool,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 467–483 (1993). [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Webster, “The role of hydrological processes in ocean-atmosphere interactions,” Rev. Geophys. 32, 427–476 (1994). [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Dowling, L. F. Radke, “A summary of the physical properties of cirrus clouds,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 29, 970–978 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1. Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1135 (1995). [CrossRef]
  7. D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of SAGE-II and HIRS co-located cloud height measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3373–3375 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986). [CrossRef]
  9. D. P. Wylie, P.-H. Wang, “Comparison of cloud frequency data from the high-resolution infrared radiometer sounder and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 29893–29900 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. 1. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, “Satellite studies of the stratospheric aerosol,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038–1046 (1979). [CrossRef]
  12. L. E. Mauldin, N. H. Zaun, M. P. McCormick, J. H. Guy, W. R. Vaughn, “Stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment II instrument: a functional description,” Opt. Eng. 24, 307–312 (1985).
  13. C. A. Reber, “The Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS),” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1215–1218 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. J. L. Mergenthaler, A. E. Roche, J. B. Kumer, G. A. Ely, “Cryogenic Limb Etalon Spectrometer observations of tropical cirrus,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22183–22194 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991). [CrossRef]
  17. G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Hervig, M. McHugh, “Cirrus detection using HALOE measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 719–722 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2. Locating cloud tops,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1137–1147 (1995). [CrossRef]
  20. P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, P. Minnis, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, K. M. Skeens, “A method for estimating vertical distribution of the SAGE II opaque cloud frequency,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 243–246 (1995). [CrossRef]
  21. G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, P.-H. Wang, K. M. Skeens, “Simulation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II cloud measurements using airborne lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21795–21807 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. P.-H. Wang, P. Minnis, M. P. McCormick, G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, D. F. Young, K. M. Skeens, “A study of the vertical structure of tropical (20°S–20°N) optically thin clouds from SAGE II observations,” Atmos. Res. 47, 599–614 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996). [CrossRef]
  24. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, W. P. Arnott, “Extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo for laboratory and natural cirrus clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21825–21835 (1997). [CrossRef]
  25. U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, Th. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 783–793 (2000). [CrossRef]
  26. C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, P.-H. Wang, R. F. Arduni, B. A. Baum, P. Minnis, A. Goldman, M. C. Abrams, R. Zander, E. Mahieu, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, F. W. Irion, M. J. Newchurch, “ATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of clouds in the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 903–919 (1998). [CrossRef]
  27. W. P. Arnott, Y. Y. Dong, J. Hallett, “Extinction efficiency in the infrared (2–18-µm) of laboratory ice clouds: observations of scattering minima in the Christiansen bands of ice,” Appl. Opt. 34, 541–551 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. J. Heymsfield, “Cirrus uncinus generating cells and the evolution of cirroform clouds. Part I: Aircraft observations of the growth of the ice phase,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 799–808 (1975). [CrossRef]
  29. A. J. Heymsfield, C. M. R. Platt, “A parameterization of the particle size spectrum of ice clouds in terms of the ambient temperature and the ice water content,” J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 846–855 (1984). [CrossRef]
  30. K. N. Liou, P. Yang, Y. Takano, K. Sassen, T. Charlock, W. Arnott, “On the radiative properties of contrail cirrus,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1161–1164 (1998). [CrossRef]
  31. K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds and climate implications,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 91–98 (1998). [CrossRef]
  32. M. C. Abrams, G. C. Toon, R. A. Schinder, “Practical example of the correction of Fourier-transform spectra for detector nonlinearity,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6307–6314 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. P. Stiller, M. R. Gunson, L. L. Lowes, M. C. Abrams, O. F. Raper, C. B. Farmer, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, “Stratospheric and mesospheric pressure-temperature profiles from rotational analysis of CO2 lines in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 infrared solar occultation spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3107–3117 (1995). [CrossRef]
  34. M. R. Gunson, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, R. Zander, C. P. Rinsland, J. H. Shaw, B.-C. Gao, “Measurements of CH4, N2O, CO, H2O, and O3 in the middle atmosphere by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy Experiment on Spacelab 3,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13867–13882 (1990). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited