OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 17 — Jun. 10, 2002
  • pp: 3404–3411

Direct deflection method for determining refractive-index profiles of polymer optical fiber preforms

Brian K. Canfield, Christopher S. Kwiatkowski, and Mark G. Kuzyk  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 17, pp. 3404-3411 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (843 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a method for determining the refractive-index profile of polymer optical fiber preforms through a direct-deflection measurement. The method is simple to use, compact, and has good resolution. The profile is obtained from the deflection data by numerically integrating the differential-ray equation for a radial refractive-index gradient. Corrections for topographical deviations are also discussed. Results for both graded-index and step-index fibers are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(120.5710) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Refraction
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(290.3030) Scattering : Index measurements

Brian K. Canfield, Christopher S. Kwiatkowski, and Mark G. Kuzyk, "Direct deflection method for determining refractive-index profiles of polymer optical fiber preforms," Appl. Opt. 41, 3404-3411 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. Y. Ohtsuka, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “Graded-index optical fibers of methyl methacrylate—vinyl benzoate copolymer with low loss and high bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 120–122 (1990).
  2. E. Nihei, T. Ishigure, and Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth, graded-index polymer optical fiber for near-infrared use,” Appl. Opt. 35, 7085–7090 (1996).
  3. M. G. Kuzyk, U. C. Paek, and C. W. Dirk, “Guest-host polymer fibers for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902–904 (1991).
  4. D. W. Garvey, K. Zimmerman, P. Young, J. Tostenrude, J. S. Townsend, Z. Zhou, M. Lobel, M. Dayton, R. Wittorf, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Single-mode nonlinear-optical polymer fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2017–2023 (1996).
  5. D. W. Garvey, Q. Li, M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, and S. Martinez, “Sagnac interferometric intensity-dependent refractive-index measurements of polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 21, 104–106 (1996).
  6. A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, “Polymer optical fiber amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883–884 (1993).
  7. D. J. Welker and M. G. Kuzyk, “All-optical switching in a dye-doped polymer fiber Fabry–Perot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1835–1836 (1996).
  8. D. J. Welker and M. G. Kuzyk, “Photomechanical stabilization in a polymer fiber-based all-optical circuit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 809–811 (1994).
  9. D. J. Welker and M. G. Kuzyk, “Optical and mechanical multistability in a dye-doped polymer fiber Fabry–Perot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2792–2794 (1995).
  10. S. R. Vigil, Z. Zhou, B. K. Canfield, J. Tostenrude, and M. G. Kuzyk, “Dual-core single-mode polymer fiber coupler,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 895–900 (1998).
  11. Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, and P. L. Chu, “Nonlinear coupling and optical switching in a β-carotene-doped twin-core polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Eng. 39, 624–627 (2000).
  12. V. N. Van, A. Brunet-Bruneau, S. Fisson, J. M. Frigerio, G. Vuye, Y. Wang, F. Abelès, J. Rivory, M. Berger, and P. Chaton, “Determination of refractive-index profiles by a combination of visible and infrared ellipsometry measurements,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5540–5544 (1996).
  13. C. Saekeang and P. L. Chu, “Backscattering of light from optical fibers with arbitrary refractive-index distributions: uniform approximation approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1298–1305 (1978).
  14. D. Marcuse, “Refractive index determination by the focusing method,” Appl. Opt. 18, 9–13 (1979).
  15. J. A. Ferrari, E. Frins, A. Rondoni, and G. Montaldo, “Retrieval algorithm for refractive-index profile of fibers from transverse interferograms,” Opt. Commun. 117, 25–30 (1995).
  16. H. El-Ghandoor, E. A. El-Ghafar, and R. Hassan, “Refractive index profiling of a GRIN optical fiber using a modulated speckled sheet of light,” Opt. Laser Technol. 31, 481–488 (1999).
  17. J. Sochacki, “Accurate reconstruction of the refractive-index profile of fibers and preform rods from transverse interferometric data,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3473–3482 (1986).
  18. M. Hai, X. Jianping, Z. Hui, S. Yuensheng, and C. Nong, “Measuring abberations of a gradient-index rod lens with holographic shearing interferometry,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 53–56 (1992).
  19. Z. Z. Wu, H. Davis, and S. K. Batra, “Correct ray-tracing analysis for interference microscopy of fibers,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 450, 23–36 (1995).
  20. R. Posey, L. Philips, D. Diggs, and A. Sharma, “LP01-LP02 interference using a spectrally extended light source: measurement of the non-step-refractive-index profile of optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1357–1359 (1996).
  21. M. A. Mabrouk and H. F. El-Bawab, “Refractive index profile of GRIN optical fibre considering the area under the interference fringe shift. I. The matching case,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 247–256 (1997).
  22. T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Mabrouk, and H. F. El-Bawab, “Refractive-index profile of GRIN optical fiber considering the area under the interference fringe shift: II. The mismatching case,” J. Opt. A 1, 64–72 (1999).
  23. A. A. Hamza and A. M. Nasr, “Interferometric studies on multi-mode step-index optical fibres,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 449–456 (1998).
  24. A. A. Hamza, T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Mabrouk, and M. A. El-Morsy, “Refractive index profile of polyethylene fiber using interactive multiple-beam Fizeau fringe analysis,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 77, 3090–3106 (2000).
  25. B. X. Chen, H. Hamanaka, and K. Iwamura, “Recovery of refractive-index profiles of planar graded-index waveguides from measured mode indices: an iteration method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1301–1305 (1992).
  26. R. Oven, S. Batchelor, D. G. Ashworth, D. Gelder, and J. M. Bradshaw, “Iterative refinement technique for reconstructing refractive index profiles from mode indices,” Electron. Lett. 31, 229–231 (1995).
  27. F. Gonella, A. Quaranta, A. Sambo, F. Caccavale, and I. Mansour, “Construction of glass waveguide refractive index profiles by the effective-index finite-difference method,” Opt. Mat. 5, 321–326 (1996).
  28. S. Batchelor, R. Oven, and D. G. Ashworth, “Reconstruction of refractive index profiles from multiple wavelength mode indices,” Opt. Commun. 131, 31–36 (1996).
  29. K. I. White, “Practical application of the refracted near-field technique for the measurement of optical fibre refractive index profiles,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 11, 185–196 (1978).
  30. M. Young, “Calibration technique for refracted near-field scanning of optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2479–2480 (1980).
  31. M. Young, “Optical fiber index profiles by the refracted-ray method (refracted near-field scanning),” Appl. Opt. 20, 3415–3422 (1981).
  32. T. Müller, “Resolution improvement in refracted near-field index measurement by a lens-shaped liquid cell,” Electron. Lett. 19, 580–582 (1983).
  33. N. Gisin, “Correcting refracted near field refractive index profile measurements for Gaussian intensity distributions,” Opt. Commun. 83, 295–299 (1991).
  34. I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
  35. N. Gisin, R. Passy, P. Stamp, N. Hori, and S. Nagano, “New optical configuration for nondestructive measurements of refractive-index profiles of LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1726–1731 (1994).
  36. B. Groebil, B. Gisin, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Measuring refractive index profiles of integrated LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 34, 2309–3214 (1995).
  37. T. Yabu, S. Sawa, and M. Geshiro, “Measurement of refractive index distribution of optical waveguides by the propagation mode near-field method employing an improved inverse analysis,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 79, 21–29 (1996).
  38. P. Oberson, B. Gisin, B. Huttner, and N. Gisin, “Refracted near-field measurements of refractive index and geometry of silica-on-silicon integrated optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7268–7272 (1998).
  39. M. J. Saunders, “Optical fiber profiles using the refracted near-field technique: A comparison with other methods,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1645–1651 (1981).
  40. W. J. Stewart, “Optical fiber and preform profiling technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1451–1465 (1982).
  41. A. A. Hamza, T. Z. N. Sokkar, K. A. El-Farahaty, and H. M. El-Dessouky, “Comparative study on interferometric techniques for measurement of the optical properties of a fiber,” J. Opt. 1, 41–50 (1999).
  42. S. T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, and M. Bazylenko, “Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: a quantitative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 820, 2730–2734 (1997).
  43. S. T. Huntington, A. Roberts, K. A. Nugent, P. Mulvaney, and M. Bazylenko, “Fibre and waveguide refractive index measurements with AFM resolution,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 62–64 (1998).
  44. P. L. Chu, “Nondestructive measurement of index profile of an optical-fibre preform,” Electron. Lett. 13, 736–738 (1977).
  45. D. Peri and P. L. Chu, “Measurement of refractive-index profile of optical-fibre preform by means of spatial filtering,” Electron. Lett. 17, 371–372 (1981).
  46. J. Sochacki, M. Sochaka, and C. Gomez-Reino, “Reconstruction of axially nonsymmetric refractive index profiles from ray deflection by means of the Abel integral transform,” Opt. Commun. 71, 20–22 (1989).
  47. P. Skok and M. Miller, “Spatial filtering method of oblique slit for measurement of refractive-index profile of optical-fibre preforms,” Electron. Lett. 23, 859–860 (1987).
  48. W. Urbanczyk, K. Pietraszkiewicz, and W. A. Wozniak, “Novel bifunctional systems for measuring the refractive index profile and residual stress birefringence in optical fibers and preforms,” Opt. Eng. 31, 491–499 (1992).
  49. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK 1980).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited