OSA's Digital Library

Applied Optics

Applied Optics


  • Vol. 41, Iss. 18 — Jun. 20, 2002
  • pp: 3622–3627

Mid-Infrared Diffused Planar Waveguides Made of Silver Halide Chloro-Bromide

Benzion Dekel and Abraham Katzir  »View Author Affiliations

Applied Optics, Vol. 41, Issue 18, pp. 3622-3627 (2002)

View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (146 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We have developed waveguides for the mid-IR spectrum using silver halide crystals. Diffused planar waveguides constructed from silver chlorobromide (AgClBr) with different diffusion thicknesses were designed and characterized. The waveguides were based on our changing the refractive index of the guiding layer by a diffusion of Br ions into crystalline AgCl substrates. The waveguides were analyzed and investigated with a 10.6-μm CO2 laser, and the optically measured thicknesses of the waveguides were found to vary between 65 and 600 μm. The propagation losses were in the range of 4–16 dB/cm, and the maximal entrance angle was 62°. The output beam distribution was measured and was in good correlation with a numerical analysis simulation based on a ray-tracing model, by use of the eikonal equation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3060) Integrated optics : Infrared
(160.3220) Materials : Ionic crystals
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar

Benzion Dekel and Abraham Katzir, "Mid-Infrared Diffused Planar Waveguides Made of Silver Halide Chloro-Bromide," Appl. Opt. 41, 3622-3627 (2002)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset


  1. H. G. Unger, Planar Optical Waveguides and Fibers (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1977), Chap. 3, pp. 267–287.
  2. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics Theory and Technology, 4th ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1995), Chap. 4, pp. 48–57.
  3. T. Findakly, “Glass waveguides by ion exchange: a review,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244–250 (1985).
  4. F. H. Julien, P. Vagos, J. M. Lourtioz, and D. D. Yang, “Novel all-optical 10μm waveguide modulator based on intersubband absorption in GaAs/A1GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2645–2647 (1991).
  5. S. E. Plunkett, S. Propst, and M. S. Braiman, “Supported planar germanium waveguides for infrared evanescent-wave sensing,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4055–4061 (1997).
  6. W. S. C. Chang and K. W. Loh, “Experimental observation of 10.6 μm guided wave in Ge thin film,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2361–2362 (1971).
  7. M. S. Chang, W. S. C. Chang, B. L. Sopori, H. R. Vann, M. W. Muller, M. G. Craford, D. Finn, W. O. Groves, and H. Herzog, “GaAs optical waveguide structures at 10.6-μm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1572–1578 (1975).
  8. A. F. Bessonov, A. I. Gudzenko, L. N. Deryugin, V. A. Komotskii, G. A. Pogosov, V. E. Sotin, and V. F. Terichev, “Thin film chalcogenide glass waveguide for medium infrared range,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1248–1249 (1976).
  9. J. H. McFee, J. D. McGee, T. Y. Chang, and V. T. Nguyen, “Guided wave propagation at 10.6 μm in silver bromide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 534–536 (1972).
  10. P. K. Cheo, J. M. Berak, W. Oshinsky, and J. L. Swindal, “Optical waveguide structure for CO2 lasers,” Appl. Opt. 12, 500–509 (1973).
  11. F. Moser, D. Bunimovich, A. DeRowe, O. Eyal, A. German, Y. Gotshal, A. Levite, L. Nagli, A. Ravid, V. Scharf, S. Shalem, D. Shemesh, R. Simchi, I. Vasserman, and A. Katzir, “Medical applications of infrared transmitting silver halide fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 872–879 (1996).
  12. J. A. Harrington, “Infrared alkali halide fibers,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3097–3101 (1988).
  13. P. W. France, Fluoride Glass Optical Fibers (Blackie, Glasgow, 1990), Chap. 1, pp. 16–25.
  14. J. S. Sanghera and I. D. Aggarwal, Infrared Fiber Optics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1998), Chap. 9, pp. 325–335.
  15. D. Bunimovich and A. Katzir, “Dielectric properties of silver halide and potassium halide crystals,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2045–2048 (1993).
  16. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1975), Chap. 3, pp. 28–39.
  17. L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, and A. Katzir, “Optical properties of mixed silver halide crystals and fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
  18. A. Sa’ar and A. Katzir, “Scattering effects in crystalline infrared fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 823–833 (1988).
  19. D. L. Mills, “Light scattering by point defects in insulating crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 5864–5867 (1980).
  20. J. M. Mir and J. A. Agostinelli, “Optical thin films for waveguide applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12, 1439–1445 (1994).
  21. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Academic, Boston, 1991), Chap. 1, pp. 31–43.
  22. A. L. Laskar, “Defect properties and diffusion in silver halides,” Philos. Mag. A 64, 1043–1057 (1991).
  23. A. P. Batra and L. M. Slifkin, “Impurity ions and vacancies in silver halide crystals,” Photograph. Sci. Eng. 17, 64–68 (1973).
  24. D. W. Hewak and J. W. Y. Lit, “Numerical ray-tracing method for gradient index media,” Can. J. Phys. 63, 234–239 (1985).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited