Direct photolithographic deforming of hybrid glass films is used to fabricate optical structures. The structure is fabricated in polyethylene-oxide-acrylate modified hybrid glass films with (1) binary and gray-scale photomasks using a mercury UV-lamp exposure and (2) maskless UV-laser patterning. Fabrication of isolated lenslets, lens arrays, and gratings is presented, including the associated exposure patterns. The hybrid glass material yields light-induced deformation peak-to-valley (p.v.) heights up to 12.8 μm with mercury UV-lamp exposure and p.v. deformation heights up to 6.8 μm with 365-nm UV-laser exposure. The fabricated lenslets’ surface data are presented as Zernike-polynomial fit coefficients. Material synthesis and processing-related aspects are examined to understand and control the material’s deformation under exposure. The hybrid glass material exhibits a maximum spectral extinction coefficient of 1.6 × 10<sup>−3</sup> μm<sup>−1</sup> at wavelengths ranging from 450 to 2200 nm and has a refractive index of 1.52 at 632.8 nm. The fabricated structures exhibit rms surface roughness between 1 and 5 nm.
© 2002 Optical Society of America
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics
Ari H. O. Kärkkäinen, John M. Tamkin, Jeremy D. Rogers, Daniel R. Neal, Osmo E. Hormi, Ghassan E. Jabbour, Juha T. Rantala, and Michael R. Descour, "Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication," Appl. Opt. 41, 3988-3998 (2002)